scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

What is the causes of antibiotic resistance? 


Best insight from top research papers

Antibiotic resistance is caused by several factors. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine, animal husbandry, and plant production contribute to the emergence of resistant pathogens . Low sanitation, particularly in low and middle income countries, also plays a role in the global spread of resistant pathogens . In addition, the lack of infection control programs and antibiotic stewardship programs contribute to the dissemination of resistant strains . Other factors that contribute to antibiotic resistance include population movement, medical tourism, intensive trade exchange, and climate change . The prophylactic use of non-priority antimicrobials in animal husbandry has also been shown to lead to the transmission of resistant bacteria through the food chain and environment . Overall, the unreasonable, excessive, and uncontrolled use of antibiotics in healthcare and agriculture sectors is the main reason for the formation and spread of antibiotic resistance .

Answers from top 4 papers

More filters
Papers (4)Insight
The causes of antibiotic resistance mentioned in the paper are self-medication, excessive use of antibiotics, and incomplete antibiotic treatment.
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI
Beata Mazińska, Waleria Hryniewicz 
3 Citations
The paper discusses the causes of antibiotic resistance, including overuse and misuse of antibiotics, low sanitation, lack of infection control programs, population movement, medical tourism, intensive trade exchange, and climate change.
The paper states that the main cause of antibiotic resistance is the unreasonable, excessive, and uncontrolled use of antibiotics in healthcare and agriculture sectors.
The paper states that one of the main causes of antibiotic resistance is the inappropriate and excessive use of antibiotics, both in humans and animals.

Related Questions

What are the factors that contribute to the rise of antibiotic resistance?4 answersThe rise of antibiotic resistance is attributed to several factors. Overprescribing and misuse of antibiotics contribute to the development of multidrug-resistant bacteria, such as those causing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Additionally, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics in human medicine, veterinary medicine, animal husbandry, and plant production also contribute to the global spread of resistant pathogens. The resistome, a large pool of genes, plays a significant role in conferring antibiotic resistance, with mechanisms such as primary mutations and horizontal gene transfer contributing to the dissemination of resistant genes. Furthermore, the lack of new types of antibiotics and the inappropriate use of antimicrobials in animals and animal products contribute to the development and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Understanding the genetic factors that facilitate the evolution of resistance is crucial, as they influence the propensity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics.
What are main reasons of spreading of antibiotic resistance?5 answersThe main reasons for the spreading of antibiotic resistance are horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and the presence of antibiotic-resistant genes in the environment. HGT is a significant mode of spreading antibiotic resistance genes, and it contributes to the increasing seriousness of antibiotic resistance pollution. The environment plays a crucial role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance, as resistant bacteria and genes are pervasive in the environment, particularly in anthropogenically affected locations. Aquatic environments provide ideal conditions for genetic recombination and the emergence of antibiotic resistance due to selective pressure and opportunities for genetic material exchange. Additionally, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine, animal husbandry, and plant production contribute to the emergence of resistant pathogens. The lack of sanitation, low-quality infection control programs, and the absence of antibiotic stewardship programs also contribute to the spread of resistant strains.
What are the mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics?5 answersAntibiotic resistance is caused by various mechanisms. These include the modification or destruction of antimicrobials, reduction of access to the target, alteration of the target, and acquisition of resistance genes from other microorganisms. Bacteria can develop resistance by mutating the drug target, secreting hydrolase enzymes, or using efflux pumps to remove antibiotics from cells. Additionally, bacteria can protect themselves through target protective proteins and changes in cell morphology. The distribution of antibiotic-resistant genes is facilitated by horizontal gene transfer among bacteria. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial for recognizing global patterns of resistance and developing new drugs and strategies to combat resistance.
What is antibiotic resistance?5 answersAntibiotic resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to survive and grow in the presence of antibiotics, which are designed to kill them. It is a global threat that affects humans, animals, and the environment. Antibiotic resistance can occur through the mutation of existing genes or the acquisition of new genes from the environment or other species. Once resistance develops, it can spread through natural selection and the proliferation of resistant bacteria. Factors contributing to antibiotic resistance include the misuse and overuse of antibiotics in both human and animal settings, as well as the improper disposal of antibiotic residues. Antibiotic resistance has significant implications for healthcare, food security, and development, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Urgent intervention is needed to address this problem.
What is Mechanism of resistance of antibiotics?5 answersThe mechanism of resistance of antibiotics involves various strategies employed by bacteria to defend against the effects of these drugs. One common mechanism is the acquisition of genetic mutations that allow bacteria to adapt and become resistant to antibiotics. Bacteria can also develop resistance through the transfer of genetic material, which confers resistance to specific antimicrobial agents. Additionally, exposure to stress conditions, such as antibiotics, can activate stress response mechanisms in bacteria, leading to changes in their susceptibility to antibiotics. Another mechanism involves the inhibition of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, disruption of cell membrane integrity, suppression of nucleic acids and/or proteins synthesis, and disturbances of metabolic processes. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial for developing new drugs or drug combinations to combat antibiotic resistance.
Why antibiotic resistance so important?5 answersAntibiotic resistance is important because it poses a serious risk to public health and can make treatment ineffective. The overuse and abuse of antibiotics have led to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. This means that pathogenic bacterial species have developed resistance to one or more types of antibiotics, and the ability to share this resistance with other species further exacerbates the problem. Antibiotics do not work all the time, and their inappropriate use can lead to nosocomial infections and the development of antibiotic-resistant animal organisms causing human diseases. The rapid spread of resistance among a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms to different groups of antibiotics, such as cephalosporins, has been observed. Additionally, concerns about increased antibiotic resistance and adverse drug reactions provide a powerful incentive to examine antibiotic use.

See what other people are reading

What is the inverted u theory of arousal and performance?
4 answers
The inverted U theory of arousal and performance suggests that there is an optimal level of arousal for task performance. According to this theory, performance on easy tasks peaks at higher arousal levels, while performance on difficult tasks follows an inverted U-shaped relationship with arousal, peaking at medium arousal levels. This theory is supported by studies that have examined the effect of arousal on motor skills. For simple motor tasks, high arousal is more advantageous, while for complex motor tasks, low arousal is more advantageous. Neurofeedback techniques have been used to shift an individual's arousal state towards the optimal level, resulting in improved task performance. The Yerkes-Dodson law, which describes the inverse U-shaped relationship between arousal and performance, is a fundamental principle underlying the inverted U theory.
What specific competencies are required for counselors to effectively navigate telehealth platforms when working with older adults?
4 answers
Specific competencies required for counselors to effectively navigate telehealth platforms when working with older adults include knowledge of the readiness of technology use among older adults, awareness of the competencies needed to develop or maintain interprofessional collaboration in telehealth, and the ability to overcome technical challenges in video-based counseling sessions. In terms of interprofessional collaboration, competencies in interprofessional communication and patient/client/family/community-centered care are identified as essential. Additionally, counselors should be equipped with the skills to address collaborative care barriers in telehealth. To ensure effective telehealth sessions, counselors should be familiar with the challenges faced by older adults in accessing telemedicine, such as hearing, visual, and cognitive decline, as well as limited access to internet and devices. By understanding these challenges, counselors can tailor their approach to meet the unique needs of older adult clients in telehealth settings.
In what areas is digital competency of interest?
5 answers
Digital competency is of interest in various areas. It is particularly relevant in the field of education, where there is a focus on identifying the digital skills that teachers need to possess and the ICT skills that students should acquire at different educational levels. Additionally, digital competencies are essential for teachers in online education, as they need to guide and support students in virtual learning environments. The automotive industry is also recognizing the importance of digital competency, as modern digital technologies are transforming the industry and future specialists need to be equipped with the necessary skills. Furthermore, digital competency plays a role in medical research, where it contributes to the innovativeness of research publications. Overall, digital competency is a topic of interest in education, online education, the automotive industry, and medical research.
How can BIM and VR be integrated to improve the construction process?
4 answers
BIM and VR can be integrated to improve the construction process by enhancing visualization, interaction, and decision-making throughout the building lifecycle. Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies can be used to augment the real world with information from the Building Information Modeling (BIM) model or immerse users in a virtual world generated from the BIM model. This integration allows for improved design, construction, and operation of buildings. VR is commonly used in the design phase, while AR is prevalent in the construction and operation phases. The combination of BIM, AR, and VR enables the development of Virtual Design Construction (VDC) and provides project managers with on-site access to project information. Additionally, the integration of BIM and VR can enhance cost estimation, material selection, and reduce variation orders in construction projects.
What are the perspectives about interprofessional collaboration and patient-centred care?
4 answers
Interprofessional collaboration is seen as essential in providing comprehensive care to patients, especially in primary care settings. It has been shown to improve patient health outcomes, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce healthcare spending and wait times. However, there is a lack of evidence on how to include patients in these collaborative teams. Patients are recognized as having expertise in their own health and should be involved as active participants in their care. They can assume roles such as an expert of their own health, a (co)decision-maker, and a self-manager. Patient-centered care is often framed as a means to counter medical paternalism, but its adoption in healthcare settings has not consistently improved health outcomes. This may be due to the sidelining of medical expertise that patients want or need, leading to feelings of abandonment or inadequate care. To enhance patient-centered care, it is important to consider how medical expertise can be integrated with patient expertise through co-design and co-production of services and resources.
What is the relevance of multiliteracies?
4 answers
The relevance of multiliteracies lies in its ability to address the changing needs of education in a globalized and digitized world. Multiliteracies pedagogy offers solutions to incorporate diverse modes of meaning-making, such as oral, visual, audio, gestural, tactile, and spatial patterns, into language teaching. By embracing multiliteracies, teachers can provide students with opportunities to develop their knowledge and skills in examining diverse information sources, critically exploring information, and becoming active meaning-makers and effective communicators. Multiliteracies also help to equalize power dynamics within education by moving away from traditional print-based literacies that privilege the cultural majority. It expands students' linguistic capital and deepens their understanding of meaning-making across multiple contexts. Additionally, multiliteracies foster intercultural awareness, helping students to value local knowledge, be sensitive to diversity, and embrace a more intersectional view of others. Overall, multiliteracies are relevant in classroom practice as they prepare students for the demands of a rapidly changing world and promote inclusive and effective communication.
What are some interesting findings on topics regarding cybersecurity?
4 answers
Cybersecurity research has revealed several interesting findings. Firstly, the analysis of cybersecurity texts has identified trending topics and the evolution of cyber attacks over time, which can help predict and prepare for these attacks. Secondly, a study analyzing tweets posted by non-expert users on Twitter found an increase in discussions on cyber security and privacy topics in 2021, compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as an increased level of help-seeking tweets during the pandemic. Thirdly, an analysis of users' engagement in privacy and security discussions on Stack Overflow showed that a significant number of cybersecurity-related questions remain unanswered, highlighting the need to promote engagement and exchange of expertise in this area. Lastly, a survey of college students in Virginia revealed discrepancies in the academic and professional needs of STEM students, particularly in areas such as business fundamentals and support services, suggesting the need for improvements in cybersecurity programs to cater to these needs.
How Neurofeedback training works?
4 answers
Neurofeedback training is a self-training technique that aims to adjust and enhance brain function. It involves providing real-time feedback of brain activity or connectivity to the participant, allowing them to volitionally control their own brain activity. Neurofeedback training can be used for various purposes, such as emotion regulation, motor function improvement in neurological diseases, and motor performance enhancement in healthy adults. The training typically involves the use of EEG signals, which are analyzed in real-time using machine learning algorithms to predict and provide feedback on the participant's brain states or emotional states. Through practice and reinforcement, neurofeedback training has been shown to facilitate measurable changes in brain function and behavior. It has the potential to be a promising tool for helping people with emotional or mental disorders, as well as for improving specific motor skills.
Cancer treatments with bacteria
4 answers
Bacteria have been explored as potential cancer treatments. Researchers have made progress in using live bacteria as cancer therapeutics, although only Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is currently approved for human use. The relationship between bacteria and the emergence or development of tumors in the human body has been studied throughout history, and recent advancements have focused on forcing bacteria to serve for cancer treatment, including the creation of bacterial microrobots. Bacteria can impair the effectiveness of certain chemotherapies, and their presence can have wide-ranging effects on cancer treatment, such as affecting drug metabolism and altering toxin conversion. Bacteria-mediated antitumor therapy provides new options to address challenges in precision cancer treatment, as bacteria have the ability to destroy tumor cells and induce antitumor immune responses. The impact of bacteria on cancer is not limited to tumorigenesis, but also includes the overall susceptibility of bacteria to tumor progression and the response to anti-cancer therapy.
How has wellbeing of employees and leadership approaches emerged in the wake of covid 19?
4 answers
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a greater focus on employee wellbeing and the need for effective leadership approaches. Studies have shown that employees expect leaders to demonstrate empathy and address unexpected issues in the workplace. Leadership styles during the pandemic have varied, with command-and-control styles having detrimental emotional impacts on staff, particularly in the nursing workforce. Burnout among healthcare workers has been intensified during the pandemic, highlighting the need for organizational and leadership approaches to support mental health and wellbeing. The impact of leadership styles on employee wellbeing and resilience has been investigated, with findings suggesting that both transformational and transactional leadership styles have positive relationships with employee wellbeing. Overall, the pandemic has emphasized the importance of leadership in supporting employee wellbeing and resilience, and organizations need to prioritize mental health support and effective leadership approaches during crises.
What is the effect of vibration on balance?
5 answers
Vibration has been found to have a positive effect on balance. Vibration training can effectively improve the balance ability of athletes, such as long jumpers. Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) can disturb standing balance function, but a rest period after exposure can help restore balance. In patients with flexible flatfoot, WBV has been shown to significantly increase dynamic balance. Vibration from exercise machines has a slight influence on balance and stability, as indicated by variations in the center of pressure. Subthreshold vibration interventions, such as using vibratory insoles, have been found to improve postural control and gait in the elderly, especially in those with balance deficiencies.