Can mountainous terrain trap pollutants?4 answersMountainous terrain can trap pollutants, leading to higher concentrations in certain areas. The presence of mountains can increase or decrease aerosol concentrations, but on average, mountains effectively reduce aerosol concentrations. Atmospheric circulation over mountainous regions is more complex, and meteorological models need to have a sub-kilometer grid spacing to accurately estimate pollutant concentrations. Mountain cold-trapping occurs when pollutants are found at higher concentrations in surface media high on a mountain compared to lower areas. Wet-gaseous deposition is the main driver of mountain cold-trapping in soils, and its effects are enhanced by negative temperature gradients and increased precipitation upslope. The preferential accumulation of organic pollutants at higher altitudes is due to differences in precipitation scavenging efficiency, which is temperature-dependent. Air pollution in mountainous terrain is influenced by terrain effects, such as stable and convective boundary layers, and numerical models and observational studies are used to understand and forecast air pollution in these areas.
How can ecotourism help uttarakhand in achieving sustainable development?5 answersEcotourism can help Uttarakhand in achieving sustainable development by addressing the issues of poverty, unemployment, and out migration in the region. It can generate employment opportunities at the local level and promote economic growth. Additionally, ecotourism can contribute to the conservation of natural resources and biodiversity, ensuring the long-term sustainability of the region. By implementing community-based ecotourism initiatives, Uttarakhand can leverage its natural beauty and cultural heritage to attract tourists and generate income for the local communities. The government's recognition of tourism as an industry and the provision of incentives and subsidies further support the development of ecotourism in Uttarakhand. By adopting a holistic approach that considers factors such as landscape naturalness, topographic attributes, and accessibility parameters, ecotourism planning can be effectively implemented to select suitable locations and manage tourism activities in a sustainable manner. This will contribute to the overall sustainable development goals of the region and improve the quality of life for the local population.
What is the role of mountain ecosystems in mitigating climate change?4 answersMountain ecosystems play a crucial role in mitigating climate change. They act as storehouses of rich biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services. Forests in mountain regions, in particular, provide a nature-based solution by protecting people and infrastructure against natural hazards, reducing the need for engineered technical protection measures. Additionally, mountains offer natural environmental gradients that can be used as natural laboratories for climate change research and experiments, allowing for a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on species, communities, and biodiversity. High mountains, with their treeless alpine landscapes, are key areas for biodiversity and act as water sources and reservoirs. They are also excellent natural indicator systems for tracing the ecological impacts of global climate change, as they are distributed over all climate zones on Earth. Overall, mountain ecosystems provide important services in mitigating climate change and understanding its impacts.
How can masyarakat adat contribute to sustainable development?5 answersMasyarakat adat can contribute to sustainable development in several ways. Firstly, they play a crucial role in environmental protection and management. Their deep knowledge of customary law and their close relationship with nature make them effective managers, protectors, and enforcers of the environment. Secondly, masyarakat adat have a strong sense of cultural identity and heritage, which they strive to preserve and pass on to future generations. This preservation of cultural values and traditions contributes to the overall sustainability of indigenous communities and helps maintain their unique ways of life. Lastly, masyarakat adat can provide valuable insights and perspectives on sustainable development based on their traditional knowledge and practices. Their holistic approach to resource management and their emphasis on community well-being can offer alternative models for achieving sustainable development goals.
What is the importance of disaster preparedness in mountainous areas?3 answersDisaster preparedness is crucial in mountainous areas for several reasons. Firstly, the risk perception of residents plays a significant role in their preparedness. Studies have shown that residents who overestimate the risks of disasters due to limited scientific knowledge are less dependent on their place and have a lower sense of attachment. Secondly, rapid urbanization and development in mountain areas can increase risks and vulnerabilities, making preparedness even more important. Transportation, resource extraction, and tourism developments can undermine pre-existing strategies to minimize environmental dangers. Thirdly, timely prevention, preparedness, and response measures are essential to mitigate the impact of natural disasters. Effective prediction and early warning systems can save lives and reduce damage to infrastructure. Lastly, in mountainous regions, disasters such as floods can have significant economic and social impacts on communities. Farmers, for example, perceive flood disasters as causing unemployment and reducing household income, highlighting the need for preparedness measures. Overall, disaster preparedness is crucial in mountainous areas to protect lives, infrastructure, and livelihoods.
What are the key challenges in disaster preparedness in mountainous areas?1 answersDisaster preparedness in mountainous areas faces several key challenges. One challenge is the limited scientific knowledge of the residents regarding disaster occurrence, which leads to an overestimation of risks and reduces their dependencies on the place. Another challenge is the rapid urbanization in mountain regions, which increases risks and vulnerabilities by introducing new and complex hazards and undermining pre-existing strategies to minimize environmental dangers. Additionally, the combination of a dynamic bio-geophysical environment and intensified human use has increased the vulnerability of mountain social-ecological systems to risk from hazards. Furthermore, the evolution of social-ecological systems in mountain environments, from relatively discrete and isolated pockets of population to larger, diversified structures, has magnified exposures and vulnerabilities, requiring pro- and reactive risk governance at various scales. These challenges highlight the need for policies that can help educate and prepare the residents, develop suitable disaster mitigation strategies, and create conditions for building resilience in risk-prone mountain areas.