What is the target of rheumatoid factors ?
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Rheumatoid factors (RFs) target the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) .
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|The target of rheumatoid factors is the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG).|
|The target of rheumatoid factors (RFs) is the constant regions of the heavy chain in the IgG Fc fragment.|
|The target of rheumatoid factors (RFs) is the Fc region of immunoglobulin (Ig)G.|
01 Jun 2007-Nature Reviews Rheumatology
|The paper does not mention the specific target of rheumatoid factors. The paper discusses various targets for biologic therapies in rheumatoid arthritis, including cytokines, adipokines, and microparticles.|
24 Nov 2010-International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology
|The target of rheumatoid factors (RFs) is the Fc region of IgG.|
What are the national priorities for research on risk factors associated with the development of rheumatoid arthritis?5 answersCurrently, there is an increasing interest in treating patients at risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to prevent the development of this chronic disease. The early identification of predictive factors for RA is crucial, including autoantibodies, markers of systemic inflammation, and clinical features such as articular affection and patient's clinical perception. Additionally, sociodemographic and environmental factors, such as lifestyle habits and periodontal disease, are also being considered as potential risk factors for RA. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in RA outcomes. Low social support and low decision latitude at work have also been associated with an increased risk of RA. Sleep disorders (SDs) have been found to be associated with an increased risk of RA, particularly sleep apnea. Overall, the national priorities for research on risk factors associated with the development of RA include early identification of predictive factors, understanding the role of sociodemographic and environmental factors, investigating the impact of CVD risk factors, and exploring the association between sleep disorders and RA.
What are the most effective treatments for rheumatoid arthritis research articles?5 answersThe most effective treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include traditional anti-rheumatic drugs, biological agents, and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Biological agents, such as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1, have shown significant advantages in recent years and are widely used. DMARDs, including methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, and leflunomide, are considered first-line therapy for newly diagnosed cases of RA. Additionally, targeted synthetic DMARDs and small molecule anti-rheumatic drugs have also been successful in treating RA. Other potential treatments for RA include microbial therapy, tuned cationic dendrimer therapy, and alternative topical and naturally based options such as Aloe vera and Curcumin (turmeric). Overall, a combination of pharmacologic therapies, including DMARDs and biological agents, along with early aggressive therapy, has shown promising results in the effective treatment of RA.
What is Therapeutic targets for inflammatory bowel disease?5 answersTherapeutic targets for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include proteins such as MST1, HGFAC, STAT3, ITPKA, and CXCL5. Polyphenols, a group of phytochemicals, have also shown potential as therapeutic targets for IBD due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, as well as their ability to modulate the gut microbiome. In addition, the management of rare and extraordinary rare causes of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is an important therapeutic target in IBD. The interorgan networks and molecular networks in immune cells are also potential therapeutic targets for IBD. Furthermore, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the gastrointestinal tract have been implicated as potential drug targets for IBD.
What is the target of the ACPA in rheumatoid arthritis?5 answersAnti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are the target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ACPA are detectable in about two-thirds of RA patients and are used as a diagnostic criterion for the disease. These antibodies specifically target citrullinated proteins, which are proteins that have undergone a post-translational modification called citrullination. Citrullination is the conversion of the amino acid arginine to citrulline, and this modification is believed to play a role in the development and progression of RA. The presence of ACPA in the blood is associated with disease severity and is a major risk factor for RA progression. The specific targets of ACPA can vary between individuals, and the level of ACPA and their target cross-reactivity increase over time in RA patients.
What are the inflammatory factors related to B cells?5 answersB cells are associated with the production of inflammatory factors such as TNFα and IL-6. B cells can also produce proinflammatory cytokines like TNFa and IL-6 through B-cell receptor (BCR) ligation, binding of the costimulatory ligand on activated T-cells, or interaction with circulating cytokines. Additionally, B cells have been found to contribute to neurological diseases through peripheral immune mechanisms, including the production of cytokines and antibodies. The role of B cells in inflammation is complex, as they can also have anti-inflammatory functions. For example, B cell activating factor (BAFF) has been shown to select IL-10-B cells over IL-10+ regulatory B cells in inflammatory responses. Further research is needed to fully understand the specific inflammatory factors and mechanisms associated with B cells in different contexts.
How can we identify the targets of transcription factors?5 answersTranscription factor targets can be identified through the integration of binding and expression data. ChIP binding data is used to identify potential binding sites, while gene expression data quantifies the effect of transcription factor overexpression or knockdown on its targets. The binding and expression target analysis (BETA) algorithm ranks targets based on the distances of their assigned peaks from the ChIP experiment and the signed statistics from gene expression profiling. Another approach is the use of the TARGET system, which allows for the rapid identification of direct regulated gene targets of transcription factors. This system employs the transient transformation of plant protoplasts with inducible nuclear entry of the transcription factor and subsequent transcriptomic and/or ChIP-seq analysis. Computational techniques can also be used to predict functional associations for transcription factors. By leveraging gene expression data, a genome-wide transcriptional regulatory network can be built to infer regulatory relationships among transcription factors and their targets.
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How to build gouty arthritis cell model?
5 answersA gouty arthritis cell model can be built using the following steps. First, take human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells) as model making cells and culture them in a cell culture box for 12-36 hours after planking. Next, add adenosine to the cells and continue incubation for 12-36 hours. Then, add xanthine oxidase into the cell supernatant and continue culture for 12-36 hours. Finally, perform efficient liquid detection of uric acid content to confirm the hyperuricemia cell model. This model can be used to evaluate the uric acid reduction efficacy of medicines and is of great significance for gout medicine research.What is the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the geriatric population?
3 answersThe prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the geriatric population is not explicitly mentioned in the abstracts provided.Does IL-17 inhibitor reduce TH17 population?
5 answersIL-17 inhibitors have been shown to reduce the TH17 population in various studies. In the context of psoriasis, IL-23 deprivation resulted in a decrease in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic TH17 cells, with a stronger effect observed on pathogenic TH17 cells. In septic arthritis, the neutralization of IL-17A led to a decrease in the Th17 cell population. In multiple sclerosis, small molecule IL-6 inhibitors were found to suppress IL-17 production in myelin-specific CD4 T cells. In allergic rhinitis, IL-35 was shown to inhibit the Th17 response. In an acute inflammatory bowel disease model, blocking IL-6 signal resulted in an increase in IL-17 production specifically in CD44- T cells. Therefore, IL-17 inhibitors have demonstrated the ability to reduce the TH17 population in various disease contexts.What is the effect of IL-6 on the activation of Raji B cells?
5 answersIL-6 has been shown to enhance the viability and survival of Raji B cells when administered in combination with other cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, or TNF-α. This effect is mediated through the activation of the Erk1/2 and S6K1 signaling pathways. The activation of these pathways is essential for the increased viability and survival of Raji B cells in response to IL-6 and other cytokines. However, the specific role of IL-6 alone in the activation of Raji B cells is not mentioned in the provided abstracts.Are IFN-α/β in pDCs can be used as anti-tumour response?
4 answersIFN-α/β in pDCs can be used as an anti-tumour response. Studies have shown that pDCs, or plasmacytoid dendritic cells, play a critical role in shaping immune responses and have emerged as novel vectors for immunotherapy. pDCs have the ability to cross-present synthetic long peptides (SLPs), which contain both class I and class II epitopes, and induce potent CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. In addition, pDCs produce type I interferons (IFN-I) in response to viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2, and contribute to protecting the host against the virus. Furthermore, pDCs have been found to have higher levels of IFN-α mRNA expression in females compared to males, suggesting a sex-specific differential expression of IFN-Is. These findings indicate that pDCs and IFN-α/β production have the potential to be utilized in anti-tumour responses and immunotherapy strategies.What is known about GZMK T cells?
5 answersGZMK+ T cells have been identified as a distinct subset of CD8+ T cells that are associated with immune aging in mice and humans. These cells exhibit markers of exhaustion and tissue homing, and are highly clonal. They express granzyme K (GZMK), which enhances inflammatory functions of non-immune cells. In the CNS, CD4+CCR5high effector memory T cells, which also express GZMK, have been found to be involved in immune surveillance during homeostasis and potentially contribute to CNS pathology. Lenvatinib treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been shown to recruit cytotoxic GZMK+CD8 T cells in the tumor stroma, suggesting a potential role in the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), GZMK has been identified as a hub gene associated with RA synovia, suggesting its potential as a key mediator of RA pathogenesis and a marker for diagnosis.What are the functions of GZMK T cells?
5 answersGZMK T cells have multiple functions. They are involved in immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) during homeostasis and can also contribute to CNS autoimmune pathology. In addition, GZMK T cells have been identified as a potential target to address age-associated dysfunctions of the immune system. Furthermore, GZMK has been found to enhance the inflammatory functions of non-immune cells, suggesting a role in promoting inflammation. GZMK T cells have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may serve as markers for RA diagnosis. Finally, lenvatinib treatment has been shown to recruit cytotoxic GZMK+CD8 T cells in intratumor stroma, which may impact the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).What is the role of cytokine in rheumatoid arthritis?
4 answersCytokines play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by driving inflammation and joint damage. Various cytokines, including interleukins (IL-1, IL-6, IL-15, IL-17, IL-18), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon, contribute to the hyperactive immune reactions and inflammatory processes in RA. These cytokines are involved in synovial cell proliferation, cartilage and bone destruction, and the production of destructive enzymes. In particular, IL-17 has been associated with RA, as its serum levels are increased in RA patients compared to healthy controls. Additionally, TNF-α is a central cytokine in the pathogenesis of RA, and its stimulation leads to enhanced interaction between fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and T cells, resulting in T cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation. Understanding the role of cytokines in RA has led to the development of targeted therapies, such as biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, which aim to modulate the immune response and provide more effective treatments for RA.How does GZMK influence the progression of rheumatoid arthritis?
4 answersGZMK does not appear to be directly mentioned in any of the provided abstracts. Therefore, there is no information available in these abstracts regarding how GZMK influences the progression of rheumatoid arthritis.How does stigma affect the quality of life of adults living with Sickle Cell Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa?
5 answersStigma has a detrimental impact on the quality of life of adults living with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The literature shows that people with SCD experience stigmatization, leading to exclusion, status loss, internalized stigma, and misconceptions about the disease. This stigma is evident at interpersonal and institutional levels, with limited public education, specialist care, and religious beliefs acting as determinants. The social determinants of health, such as experiences of racism and discrimination, also contribute to the impact of stigma on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The burden of SCD in Sub-Saharan Africa is high, and studies have highlighted the challenges faced in terms of interventions, cost of treatment, and knowledge about the disease. Addressing stigma and improving HRQoL for adults with SCD in Sub-Saharan Africa requires multipronged approaches, including increased public education, investment in specialist healthcare, and collaboration with socioreligious institutions.What is the mechanism of action of Cytotec?
5 answersCytotec is not mentioned in any of the provided abstracts.