What does the peer-review process mean?
Post manuscript submission, the editor conducts a preliminary round of review to check if the manuscript adheres to the aim and scope of the journal and belongs to the journal's niche.
Later, it is moved to the peer reviewer's desk to evaluate the quality of the research work before it gets published. And, this process is collectively termed the "Peer review" process, wherein independent researchers of the relevant research group perform the evaluation.
The peer-review process is an integral part of scholarly publishing as it plays a vital role in sieving authentic research content to provide reliable data for readers.
Also, there are seven different types of the peer review process in academic publishing. However, it depends on the journal to decide the type of peer review process a paper should undergo.
This infographic depicts these 7 types of the peer review process and explains how it works.
1) Single-Blind Review
A single-blind review system conceals the reviewer's identity and reveals only the author's identity.
2) Double-Blind Review
A double-blind review system conceals both the reviewer's and the author's identities.
3) Open Peer Review
An open peer review system reveals both the reviewer's and the author's identities.
4) Post-Publication Review
In the post-publication peer review process, the journal provides an exclusive platform to evaluate the article post-publication.
5) Transparent Review
In transparent peer review, the author’s identity is revealed but, the reviewer’s identity is concealed until he/she complies to sign the report.
6) Collaborative Review
In the collaborative peer review, the authors and reviewers discuss with each other to improve the manuscript. However, the reviewers’ identity is not revealed during the process and can be unveiled at the publication time.
7) Cascading a.k.a Waterfall Peer Review
When the editor rejects the manuscript because of an irrelevant journal niche or low priority at the moment, he refers the author to an alternate journal to submit the manuscript along with the reviewer’s report.
If you want to have a comprehensive understanding of how each type of peer review process works, including its pros and cons, refer to this detailed blog on types of peer review processes.