With the advent of the internet and its evolving & expanding nature, finding information on any topic is becoming easier day by day. But, it has a downside too when it comes to using that gathered information in your official works. And the downside is often defined as "Plagiarism."
Whether gathering resources and references for abstract, literature, methodology, or any section requires extensive research through different sources and previously published works. While researching, voluntarily or involuntarily, the information gets used in your work, and that's how your work gets susceptible to plagiarism.
When it comes to academic publishing and writing research papers, it has its own set of challenges you need to be aware of so that your work should not get discredited as plagiarized. Being a student has never been easy, irrespective of the stage of your academic life. When writing dissertations, extracting inspirations and ideas from previously established works and values are essential to make the evidence presented in the paper appear stronger. However, it requires caution to dodge the fatal threat of plagiarism.
To create plagiarism-free research papers, you first need to comprehend what plagiarism is and what is considered plagiarism? So let me take you inside the world of plagiarism to get enough knowledge and attain awareness about plagiarism, its origin, history, it's types, regulations around it, and other various aspects, including tips to avoid plagiarism.
Origin and History of Plagiarism
If you try and explore the etymology of plagiarism, you will learn that the term plagiarism has its origins in the Latin word "Plagiarius." "Plagiarius" means "kidnapper," and its exact meaning can cover abduction of words and is not just limited to the abduction of people.
Historically, the first mention of plagiarism was found in the 1st century. The term was coined by a Roman poet Marcus Valerius Martialis, who complained against another poet for stealing his creative works and accused him of " kidnapping his verses." Hence the term "Plagiarius."
In the medieval period, plagiarism was very regular and became an accepted part of usual writing. Authors used to craft their verses or literary works, often taking references from religious texts and other sources, assuming that readers would be familiar with those particular topics. Plagiarism became such a rampantly used notion in writing during medieval times where multiple scholarly articles appeared on a single topic.
The scenario began to change during the Renaissance period. Authors and writers began signing off their literary creations more regularly. A greater insistence on claiming the ownership of works was observed in this period among all the creators, including scientists, authors, and poets.
In the early 1600s, the word "plagiary" was first used in the English language by Ben Johnson. In 1755, a dictionary accepted the term "Plagiarism" with a stated meaning as "crime of literary theft." As time passed, definitions and opinions over plagiarism kept evolving, and by the 18th century, copyright laws made an appearance. Since then, the modern idea of plagiarism and celebration of original work started sprouting far and wide.
Why is it Important to Avoid Plagiarism?
Now you have understood that plagiarism is a form of stealing, and hence it goes against the ethos of academic integrity. Apart from this, there are plenty of reasons why you must not plagiarize your writing, intentionally or unintentionally.
As a scholar, you must be aware that the sole purpose of any article or academic writing is to deliver the author's original ideas and thoughts over a particular topic to its readers. The original thoughts and ideas bridge the gap between the authors and readers. Plagiarizing eliminates the genuineness and trustworthiness of thoughts & opinions, and hence, the readers feel disappointed as it fails to provide the distinctness or newer views that any reader expects.
Additionally, there are other several reasons like:
Incorporating Critical Analysis
While writing research papers, you have to explore and dive deep to find a variety of sources like scholarly articles, especially peer-reviewed ones. You are expected to examine the sources keenly to understand the gaps in the chosen topic and put forth your research questions. Crafting critical questions related to the field of study is essential as it displays your understanding and the analysis you employed to decipher the problems in the chosen topic.
Improved forms of Scholarly Communication
An extended form of scholarly communication is established when you respond and craft your academic work based on what others have previously done in a particular domain. By appropriately using others' work, i.e., through citations, you acknowledge the tasks done before you and how they helped shape your work. Moreover, citations expand the doorway for readers to learn more about a topic from the beginning to the current state. But, if plagiarism (intentional or unintentional) creeps in your work, every bit of the regular scholarly communication gets shut down.
Credibility in originality.
You must craft your thoughts and ideas based upon your research, as the originality and uniqueness of your ideas will attain the tag of a credible source. You need to refrain from replicating the original writing style to accomplish this. Instead, you should try to insert your voice and tone in your academic works, including your thoughts and opinions, after critically analyzing the s
What is Plagiarism?
When you use someone else's ideas, thoughts, or works and present them as your own, the act is called Plagiarism. In addition, whether the act was committed intentionally or not, failure to acknowledge the sources or ascertain credit for using the works that were not precisely yours is considered Plagiarism.
Just imagine a simple scenario of a school. In school, the teacher gave essay assignments to students to be submitted the next day. Later in the evening, you sat down with a friend to complete the project. You two had discussions about the assignment, and then both of you wrote it. The next day, when the teacher asked for the assignment, you found out that your friend had used many ideas or writing styles in different sections of the essay and passed it as his own.
But this sounds like cheating, lying, and stealing, right? So your friend used your ideas and thoughts and pretended that it was his own.
Similarly, in the academic arena and research writing, you will find that authors often lend the ideas or words and sometimes even complete sections of somebody else's and present it as their own. Now, this may be intentional or unintentional. But, precisely at this point, the challenges in defining plagiarism begin to surface. The ideal challenge that exists till today is not in determining whether the work was used without providing due acknowledgment but in evaluating the degree of plagiarism, i.e., whether the failure to provide the credits was deliberate.
To help institutions and publishers to recognize plagiarism and measure its extent to an appropriate scale, plagiarism.org ranks 10 of the most often used acts of plagiarism. Follow through the below-mentioned list to understand the usual acts of plagiarism:
- CLONE: Using someone else's work, word-by-word.
- CTRL+C: Using a significant portion of already published work without any modifications.
- Find-Replace: Only the keywords and specific sections are changed to hide the fact that the entire content has been copied from somebody else's work.
- Remix: Rephrasing the key sentences leveraging multiple sources and crafted to appear as a new version.
- Recycle: Using your previous work in a new task, a simple case of self-plagiarism.
- Hybrid: A perfect mixture of cited sections and copied sections without citations or credit.
- Mashup: Copying from more than one source
- 404 error: Providing citations about sources that don't exist
- Aggregator: When the research paper is devoid of original work but contains a correct citation of sources
- Re-Tweet: Contains proper citation but the central part of the paper follows the source writing style.
Deliberate or not, if your work gets accused of any of the above forms of plagiarism, the consequences can be devastating. Depending upon the severity of the plagiarism, it can lead to either simple correction, article withdrawal, or blacklisting from publishers and universities. In addition, there are plenty of examples from all over the world where plagiarism led to legal battles involving intellectual property rights and copyright violations.
So, instead of falling into such traps, it's better to stay aware and informed to avoid any type of plagiarism.
Types of Plagiarism
The typical plagiarism types have already been introduced in the above section. Although plagiarism-free writing is always liked and appraised in the scholarly community, plagiarism creeps into academic works in different forms, right from complete plagiarism (the most dreadful act of stealing) to accidental plagiarism.
Observing the frequency and severity of plagiarism often committed in the academic domain, a survey found that paraphrasing is the most common form.
Since not all types of plagiarism are the same, the intention behind plagiarism is a critical aspect in identifying various acts of plagiarism. Therefore, you need to learn the intricacies of different types of plagiarism and practice in your writing to avoid plagiarism altogether.
Follow through to understand the various types of plagiarism and why plagiarism happens or perhaps, why students & scholars commit to plagiarism.
Global Plagiarism or Complete Plagiarism
Complete or Global plagiarism is the most dreadful and treacherous of all types of plagiarism. It is considered the most severe type of plagiarism where an author abdicates somebody else's work and passes it on as his creation.
It is like taking somebody else's research paper and submitting it under your name. Since the act was committed deliberately and disguised the ownership of the work, it is directly recognized under copyright violation and can lead to intellectual property abuse legal battles.
Verbatim Plagiarism or Direct plagiarism
Assume you have created your research paper, but some sections missed some crucial details. You did some research and then took a few paragraphs from your gathered sources to fill in the details and inserted those paragraphs directly in the vacant sections of your paper without quotation marks or in-text citations.
Here, in this case, you have committed direct plagiarism.
Direct or Verbatim plagiarism happens when you copy-paste somebody else's work without adequately providing credits or attributions. Since the structure and most of the words match the original author's work, it will be considered direct plagiarism. Even if you change a few wordings or the position of sentences, the final result remains the same.
Verbatim or direct plagiarism is considered a serious violation of academic integrity and can have fierce repercussions in disciplinary actions. The best way to skip this is using quotations and in-text citations whenever you borrow a few words or paragraphs from different sources.
This type of plagiarism happens when an author tries to mislead or disguise the natural source of their work. For example, you have created your research paper with enough citations, but they never found it when somebody cross-checked the citation sources. It is called source-based plagiarism.
In another form, if you use both primary and secondary data to support the evidence you have presented in your paper but only cite the primary source with no reference for the secondary data sources, it is also considered plagiarism.
In both cases, the information provided was not either relevant or misleading. Although the number of references and the citation list appears, it avails no help when you get caught in this type of plagiarism.
On similar grounds, another type of plagiarism is called data manipulation and counterfeiting. Data Manipulation is creating your own set of data and results, whereas data counterfeiting is skipping or adultering the key findings to suit your expected outcomes.
Both of these are considered serious violations and offenses. Moreover, especially in medical fields, it can lead to legal issues such as wrong data presentation, and its interpretation can lead to false clinical trials, which can have grave consequences.
In paraphrasing plagiarism, an author copies the ideas, thoughts, and inferences, rephrases sentences, and then claims ownership. Even though the words and sentences used will be different, the overall idea or the topic remains the same, and thus plagiarism occurs. It is the most common type of plagiarism, and be aware it gets easily detected, too.
You can easily avoid paraphrasing types of plagiarism by properly citing the sources. Unfortunately, authors very often mistakenly commit paraphrasing plagiarism by reading a few sources and then writing it in their own words.
Similarly, even if you translate a part of a research paper from another language and later present it as yours, even that will be considered as paraphrasing plagiarism. Though it was a cited text, it will be tagged as plagiarism for no proper attribution and citation.
Mosaic or Patch Work Plagiarism
What is mosaic plagiarism? Let's look into it.
When you create a stitched version of your research paper by lending pieces from different sources with some addition of your own words and phrases, it is called mosaic plagiarism or hence the name, patchwork plagiarism.
Authors generally refer to various sources during the research. They bring together all the best ingredients from various sources and create a perfect paper for themselves. Even though they rephrase it and insert a few of their ideas and creativity, the paper's sole structure and orientation remain plagiarized. Simply put, it means replicating the words, phrases, and paragraphs from different sources together to create an entirely new version.
It is difficult to detect, and authors too confident in themselves often resort to this type of plagiarism. However, plenty of online tools detect even the patchwork and correctly point to the sources from which you have borrowed the words, paragraphs, or ideas.
Whether deliberate or not, plagiarism is considered a breach of academic integrity, and hence the consequences remain the same. Accidental plagiarism happens due to self-neglect, mistake, incorrect paraphrasing, or missing the in-text or citations altogether. Missing the quotation blocks also falls under the same criteria.
While writing your academic papers, you have to stay cautious to avoid accidental plagiarism. Additionally, you need to be wary of different types of plagiarism and their probable occurrences. Hence, it is always advisable to proofread your paper several times before final submission and take certain precautions while citing, quoting, and giving references.
What is Self Plagiarism?
Reusing your old ideas, words, or data in a new work without citations is known as self-plagiarism. In addition, it is considered a kind of cheating as you claim credit for something you have already received.
Authors often borrow their data or experiment results, use them in their current work, and present them as brand new. It goes the same for even taking the old published works' ideas, cues, or phrases.
The degree to which self-plagiarism is still under debate depending upon the volume of works that have been copied. Additionally, many academic and non-academic journals have devised a fixed ratio on what percentage of plagiarism is acceptable in the author's previous work that can be reused. Plagiarism detection software using their extensive database and intelligence can detect it. Therefore, if left undeclared, it can also lead to journal rejection.
Unless you have made a proper declaration through citations and quotation marks about old data usage, it will fall under the purview of self-plagiarism only. You should always try to keep the origin of any part of your research paper clarified and transparent to the readers.
Reasons for Plagiarism
Although plagiarized works continue to get rejected and the respective authors face consequences of varying severity, plagiarism continues to happen. On investigating and communicating with these authors, they all stated various reasons and circumstances in which they chose to cheat and produce plagiarized content.
The reasons show few common trends like lack of genuine knowledge, dishonorable intentions to steal, or improper understanding of plagiarism. Altogether, the reasons which the authors often produce after getting caught include:
- Zero-Knowledge on types of plagiarism.
- Accidentally copying or mistakenly missing the citations.
- Desire to excel among peers.
- Poor skills to manage time.
- The belief that no one will catch them.
- No interest in academic work and just taking that as an assignment.
- Fear of failing.
- Personal reasons like accidents, family problems, etc.
None of the reasons stated above can justify the act of plagiarism or any act that goes against the integrity of the academic world.
You should understand that when you plagiarize, you provide yourself with an advantage and disrespect others who honestly try to complete their tasks. That's why the advantage you brought upon yourself is nothing but cheating. Additionally, keep in mind that readers, universities, or publishers are only interested in your genuine ideas, and the evaluation as an author will be done only over that.
What are the Consequences of Plagiarism?
Why is plagiarism a serious offense? I'm sure all of us must have echoed this question at least once in our research life. The aftermath of plagiarism can be disastrous. The accusations of plagiarism can open the floodgates to consequences that can have life-long effects tainting your career and reputation. Moreover, the consequences of plagiarism affect everybody involved in the process, and that's why plagiarism is bad. Be it author, university, or publisher, everybody faces the consequences of the short span act of copying for a lifetime.
Consequences of plagiarism w.r.t students
- Poor Grade
If you are caught for the first time, your teacher may award you zero marks or a poorer grade that can seriously affect your average scores.
- Failing a course
It has happened in the past with many Ph.D. pursuing students who failed for an entire year due to producing a plagiarized thesis. Alongside, it has some serious effects as it extends the time duration of the course and expenses to be borne as a student.
- Disciplinary action
Every university or academic institution has framed the strictest of policies and regulations about plagiarism. If you are accused of that, you may have to face the academic review committee to decide your fate. The results seen in general cases range from poor grades, failure for a year, or banning to produce or take part in any academic or research-related works.
- Expulsion from the university
If the severity of plagiarism is deep enough, as a violation of copyright or intellectual property rights, the University may choose to expel the student from its campus.
- Tarnished Academic Reputation
It is the worst of all the consequences of plagiarism. Once your impression gets tarnished, you may not be able to recover it for a lifetime as you will lose the trust to produce any unique and original academic works. Moreover, getting a job also may become difficult as, during the background verification, it may surface that you had a past where you stole and produced someone else's work as your own.
Consequences of plagiarism w.r.t Universities
If any university fails to stop or recognize plagiarism, it will lead to bigger scandals in the world of academic writing. When these scandals surface, the word will spread to every corner ( Thanks to social media and the internet). As a result, students will refrain from participating in any research or creating any academic piece.
Moreover, students may prefer other publications and even switch to different universities, not those with a tainted reputation.
Parents and students will not prefer admission to such universities with a mired reputation and are clouded with plagiarism scandals. Moreover, the decline in the number of students coming in every year will affect the university's financial state.
Consequences of plagiarism w.r.t. Researchers/Scholars
- Legal Battles
Researchers may have to face legal battles if their academic work is believed to be produced from somebody else's creation. It falls under copyright infringement, which can have serious ramifications on the reputation of authors and be punishable too.
There are several instances worldwide where authors without permission used another person's work and claimed it to be their own. In all these instances, they faced legal issues that led to fines, barred from writing and research, and sometimes, imprisonment even.
On getting convicted of plagiarism, authors have to pay fines. Since the conviction is either due to intellectual property rights or copyright infringement, there will be a fine plus the lawyer fees and other expenses associated with it as well.
- Professional Reputation
Publishers and journals will not engage authors with a convicted past of plagiarism to produce content under their brand name. So, your professional reputation will be tarnished for a lifetime. Furthermore, if a person working at some higher position in some institution gets convicted of plagiarism, it can also lead to job termination.
Rules and Regulations of Plagiarism
Almost every university worldwide has drafted its own rules and regulations related to plagiarism. Comprehensively, all these rules focus on zero-tolerance against plagiarism. They have different penalties depending upon the severity and type of plagiarism committed by authors.
Let me tell you about existing policies in a few prominent universities and journals to familiarize you with these regulations.
Before getting admitted to any course, students must take the Oath of Honor Code, a part of academic integrity observed strictly by the university. Any breach against the honor code takes the issue in front of a Student-Faculty committee that determines whether the plagiarism has happened and to what extent it has occurred. Then, after determining the merits of the case, the committee passes its conviction which has to be abided by across all the parties associated with the case.
The Honor code has a special section that clarifies the provisions in collaboration among students for different assignments. It states:
"Before you work with a classmate on a problem set, paper, laboratory report, or computer coding assignment, make sure you understand the specific course policies. It is important because learning is often a social activity, but each class dictates what people must do by themselves or what they can receive help on."
University Of California Los Angeles (UCLA)
UCLA tries to maintain strict adherence to its rules regarding plagiarism. Any case involving stealing or producing plagiarized works reaches the academic review board. Based upon its independent investigation, the Board decides over the consequences of plagiarism, if committed any. UCLA has been at the forefront of fighting academic dishonesty, and its policy clearly states:
"…representing, with or without the intent to deceive, part or all of an entire work obtained by purchase or otherwise, as the student's original work; the omission of or failure to acknowledge the true source of the work; or representing an altered but identifiable work of another person or the student's own previous work as if it were the student's original or new work."
University Of Michigan
The University Of Michigan has been trying to handle the plaguing issue of plagiarism through some iron fist at hand. Unlike other institutions, tougher and stricter regulations are in place if a student is alleged to commit plagiarism. Here the Assistant Dean is directly responsible for looking after the issues of academic violations and can pass the conviction ranging from abomination, poorer grades to even expulsion from the university.
As per university website, Plagiarism is representing someone else’s ideas, words, statements, or other work as one’s own without proper acknowledgement or citation. Examples of plagiarism include:
- Copying word-for-word or lifting phrases, special terms, or definitions from a source or reference (whether oral, printed, or on the internet) without proper attribution.
- Paraphrasing, that is, using another person’s written words or ideas, albeit in one’s own words, as if they were one’s own thought.
- Borrowing facts, statistics, graphs, or other illustrative material without proper reference, unless the information is common knowledge, in common public use.
- Submitting substantially the same paper for two or more classes (or the same class) in the same or different terms (i.e., self-plagiarism) without the expressed approval of each instructor.
The plagiarism policy states:
"SAGE takes issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism, or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors, and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgment, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to — publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action."
The Nature Journal follows a specific definition of different types of plagiarism and duplication and has policies depending upon whether the plagiarism was detected before or after publishing. In either of the scenarios, it has corrective measures that state:
"Plagiarism can be said to have occurred when large chunks of text have been cut-and-pasted without appropriate and unambiguous attribution. Such manuscripts would not be considered for publication in a Nature Portfolio journal. Aside from wholesale verbatim reuse of text, due care must be taken to ensure appropriate attribution and citation when paraphrasing and summarising the work of others. "Text recycling" or reusing parts of text from an author's previous research publication is a form of self-plagiarism. Here too, due caution must be exercised."
"When plagiarism becomes evident post-publication, we may correct, retract or otherwise amend the original publication depending on the degree of plagiarism, the context within the published article, and its impact on the overall integrity of the published study."
Quick Tips on How to Avoid Plagiarism
You have to go through plenty of previously written papers and use those scholarly sources to weave your academic paper. But, to avoid plagiarism altogether and create zero plagiarized academic work, you must insert the sources and their information appropriately, or else it will be considered plagiarized.
To ensure that your academic writing or research paper is unique and free from any type of plagiarism, incorporate the following tips:
- Pay adequate attention to managing the sources
While writing academic papers and researching various sources, students forget which reference came from which source. It confuses, and students generally present that idea as their own. And that's how unintentional yet deliberate plagiarism gets committed.
So, rather than falling into this trench, it is better to keep track of the various sources that you will be using. Keeping a note of the sources is always a good idea.
You can try creating notes with sections requiring your own words, quotation marks, and citations. That's how you can keep your work organized and easily skip the pitfall of any type of plagiarism.
Additionally, always strive to find scholarly and credible sources. The scholarly sources will present unbiased evidence and accurate experimentation results with facts backing the evidence presented.
- Proper use of Paraphrasing and Quotations
If you want to present some information from a particular source, you can always do it either by paraphrasing or using quotation marks, with credits provided to the original source. However, to present this more evidently, try adding your own words and interpretations so that readers can get the impression that you fully understand the topic.
Usually, it is observed that readers or the audience have a greater inclination towards paraphrasing than the quotes, especially if it is bulky sections. The reason is obvious: paraphrasing displays your understanding of the original work's meaning and interpretation, uniquely suiting the current state of affairs.
Also, you should know that a quotation is 100% copy-paste of the original work. In contrast, paraphrasing presents the original data in your own words, with credits duly given to the original author.
- Proper use of citations
You should cite every reference you borrow from another source accurately. Appropriate citations have to be provided with each case, whether you are quoting or paraphrasing.
To keep your academic paper plagiarism-free, you should insert in-text citation and footnote citation for every word or information you use from a different source. Additionally, you must provide a separate section of the reference list or the bibliography to put down the list of references you have used in your paper.
All these measures are necessary to keep your academic paper plagiarism-free and transparent enough so that readers can check or access the source as per their requirements. Adopting such measures will elevate your credibility as an author as well.
Depending upon the language style (APA, MLA, Chicago, or any other) in which your paper is written, you have to create your citations in that format to keep the appearance uniform and per the code's provisions.
- Review and Recheck your Work Multiple times.
Before making the final submission, you need to scrutinize your work multiple times to not fall under accidental plagiarism. To ensure that your final work does not constitute any types of accidental plagiarism, look out for:
- Misplaced or missed citations.
- The paraphrased text resembles closely to the original text.
- Incorrect reference list, i.e., sources missing the list of references.
- Missing the quotation marks or not providing the author's credentials after quotation marks.
- Use Plagiarism Checker
After receiving your article, most universities, publishers, and other institutions will subject it to plagiarism checkers to detect any types of plagiarism. These plagiarism checkers function based on drawing similarities between your article and previously published articles (present in the database). If found similar, your article will be considered plagiarised.
That's why it is advisable to use the plagiarism checker before submitting it to any institution.
Using plagiarism checker tools, you can quickly identify if you have committed any type of plagiarism, accidental or not. Once known, you can apply the corrective measures as discussed above.
Best Online Plagiarism Checker Tools
It is one of the best tools available to check your academic paper against ten different types of plagiarism. It is most suitable for academic writers, researchers and scholars. It claims to cross-check your paper against 70 Billion plus previous published scholarly works. The iThenticate plagiarism checker is now available in SciSpace starting at $8 per month.
EasyBib Plagiarism Checker
It compares your writing sample with billions of available sources online to detect plagiarism at every level. For example, you'll be notified which phrases are too similar to current research and literature, prompting a possible rewrite or additional citation. You'll also get feedback on your paper's inconsistencies, such as changes in text, formatting, or style. These small details could suggest possible plagiarism within your assignment.
Working on the same principle of scanning and matching against various sources, the critical aspect of this tool is that you can download and use it whenever you wish. It is slightly faster than others and never stores your data so that you can stay assured of any data loss.
Check Plagiarism is a free online plagiarism checker tool that allows you to check your document against billions of web pages available and provide you with quick and accurate results. It provides an "Exclude URL" option that lets you input any URL you want to factor out while checking your content for plagiarism.
Compilatio Magister is an anti-plagiarism tool/program designed explicitly for teaching professionals. You can access the turnkey educational resources, check for plagiarism against thousands of documents, and seek reliable and accurate analysis reports.
Plagiarism brings no benefit to anybody, be it you, your university, or the publisher itself. For everybody involved in the process, there are only menacing consequences that affect their regular life severely. Even though students or authors can feel they completed the task by copying from a different source, once caught, this short-lived joy will turn into a lifelong nightmare with loss of reputation, embarrassment, and, if severe, even court cases.
That's why it is of utmost importance that as an author, you should procure enough knowledge about plagiarism, various types of plagiarism, and measures to be adopted if it happens in your paper, mistakenly, or in any other way.
Universities are also required to educate and spread awareness about plagiarism as there is a lot at stake in their aspect. Universities can properly teach students and create workshops, demonstrations, and discussions about plagiarism on campus to create adequate awareness. Also, universities should encourage students to develop academic writing skills to stay capable enough to write anything and use sources properly without any violations and plagiarism.
On similar grounds, publishers can keep manuals, brochures, or web pages to explicitly inform their tolerance towards various types of plagiarism and possible consequences. Additionally, publishers must provide detailed information about the percentage of similarity they can allow in cases of self-plagiarism.
A prevalent approach from all the stakeholders, i.e., the authors, universities, and publishers, can work well enough to end this menace. Moreover, awareness and strict regulations in case of violations can help eradicate the plague of plagiarism.