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7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

About: 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1717 publications have been published within this topic receiving 40892 citations.


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Journal Article
TL;DR: Results suggest that resveratrol suppresses DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis, which correlates with down-regulation of NF-kappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression.
Abstract: We have reported recently that resveratrol ( trans -3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes, fruits, and root extracts of the weed Polygonum cuspidatum , is a potent inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. Because NF-κB suppression has been linked with chemoprevention, this prompted us to investigate the chemopreventive potential of resveratrol by testing it against mammary carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz( a )anthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague Dawley rats. Dietary administration of resveratrol (10 ppm) had no effect on body weight gain and tumor volume but produced striking reductions in the incidence (45%; P P in situ (7 of 7), whereas treatment with resveratrol suppressed DMBA-induced ductal carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed that resveratrol suppressed the DMBA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression in the breast tumor. Gel shift analysis showed suppression of DMBA-induced NF-κB activation by resveratrol. Treatment of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with resveratrol also suppressed the NF-κB activation and inhibited proliferation at S-G 2 -M phase. Overall, our results suggest that resveratrol suppresses DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis, which correlates with down-regulation of NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression.

445 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: CYP1B1-null mice, created by targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells, were born at the expected frequency from heterozygous matings with no observable phenotype as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: CYP1B1-null mice, created by targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells, were born at the expected frequency from heterozygous matings with no observable phenotype, thus establishing that CYP1B1 is not required for mouse development. CYP1B1 was not detectable in cultured embryonic fibroblast (EF) or in different tissues, such as lung, of the CYP1B1-null mouse treated with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin whereas the equivalent wild-type EF cells express basal and substantial inducible CYP1B1 and lung expresses inducible CYP1B1. CYP1A1 is induced to far higher levels than CYP1B1 in liver, kidney, and lung in wild-type mice and is induced to a similar extent in CYP1B1-null mice. 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) was toxic in wild-type EFs that express CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1. These cells effectively metabolized DMBA, consistent with CYP1B1 involvement in producing the procarcinogenic 3,4-dihydrodiol as a major metabolite, whereas CYP1B1-null EF showed no significant metabolism and were resistant to DMBA-mediated toxicity. When wild-type mice were administered high levels of DMBA intragastrically, 70% developed highly malignant lymphomas whereas only 7.5% of CYP1B1-null mice had lymphomas. Skin hyperplasia and tumors were also more frequent in wild-type mice. These results establish that CYP1B1, located exclusively at extrahepatic sites, mediates the carcinogenicity of DMBA. Surprisingly, CYP1A1, which has a high rate of DMBA metabolism in vitro, is not sufficient for this carcinogenesis, which demonstrates the importance of extrahepatic P450s in determining susceptibility to chemical carcinogens and validates the search for associations between P450 expression and cancer risk in humans.

369 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show for the first time that Nrf2(-/-) mice are more susceptible to skin tumorigenesis and that the chemopreventive effects of sulforaphane are mediated, at least in part, through NRF2.
Abstract: Sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate, possesses potent chemopreventive effects through the induction of cellular detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). To investigate carcinogenesis mechanisms related to the regulation of Nrf2, we examined the tumor incidence and tumor numbers per mouse in Nrf2 wild-type (+/+) and Nrf2 knockout (-/-) mice. 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatments resulted in an increase in the incidence of skin tumors and tumor numbers per mouse in both genotypes; however, both indices were markedly higher in Nrf2(-/-) mice as compared with Nrf2(+/+) mice. Western blot analysis revealed that Nrf2 as well as heme oxygenase-1, a protein regulated by Nrf2 were not expressed in skin tumors from mice of either genotype, whereas expression of heme oxygenase-1 in Nrf2(+/+) mice was much higher than that in Nrf2(-/-) mice in nontumor skin samples. Next, we examined the chemopreventive efficacy of sulforaphane in mice with both genotypes. Topical application of 100 nmol of sulforaphane once a day for 14 days prior to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate applications decreased the incidence of skin tumor in the Nrf2(+/+) mice when compared with the vehicle-treated group. Importantly, there was no chemoprotective effect elicited by sulforaphane pretreatment in the Nrf2(-/-) mice group. Taken together, our results show for the first time that Nrf2(-/-) mice are more susceptible to skin tumorigenesis and that the chemopreventive effects of sulforaphane are mediated, at least in part, through Nrf2.

368 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The hypothesis that melatonin inhibits the development of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in the rat while removal of the pineal gland stimulates development of such tumors is supported.
Abstract: The effects of the pineal hormone, melatonin, and of pinealectomy on the incidence of mammary adenocarcinoma in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)-anthracene (DMBA) were investigated. Melatonin (2.5 mg/kg), begun on the same day as DMBA (5 mg) treatment and given daily in the afternoon for 90 days, significantly reduced the incidence of mammary tumors from 79% (control) to 20% (treated) (p less than 0.002). Rats pinealectomized at 20 days of age and treated with 7 mg of DMBA at 50 days of age had a higher incidence of tumors (88%) compared to control animals (22%). Fifteen mg of DMBA, which resulted in a higher incidence of tumors, reduced the difference between pinealectomized and control animals. Melatonin only partially reversed the effects of pinealectomy, reducing the incidence from 87% (pinealectomy alone) to 63% (pinealectomy plus melatonin); however, the tumor incidence was still lower (27%) in nonpinealectomized, melatonin-treated animals. Assessment of plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and cortisol in DMBA-treated tumor-free and tumor-bearing animals revealed a significantly lower plasma prolactin concentration [27 +/- 5 (S.E.) ng/ml] in melatonin-treated animals as compared to vehicle-treated animals [65 +/- 8 ng/ml]. The concentration of plasma prolactin was less in melatonin-treated, pinealectomized rats (55 +/- 10 ng/ml) as compared to vehicle-treated, pinealectomized animals (101 +/- 13 ng/ml). Other hormones were not affected by melatonin treatment. These data support the hypothesis that melatonin inhibits the development of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in the rat while removal of the pineal gland stimulates development of such tumors. Additionally, these experiments provide evidence that these effects may be mediated by a suppression of plasma prolactin levels.

308 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The effects of dietary supplementation of flavonol quercetin on both 7,12-dimethylbenz( a )anthracene (DMBA)- and N -nitrosomethylurea-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague-Dawley rats were determined as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The effects of dietary supplementation of flavonol quercetin on both 7,12-dimethylbenz( a )anthracene (DMBA)- and N -nitrosomethylurea-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague-Dawley rats were determined. Quercetin diet was started 1 wk before intragastric instillation of DMBA (65 mg/kg of body weight) or i.v. injection of N -nitrosomethylurea (50 mg/kg of body weight) and was continued during the entire period (20 wk) of the experiment. Dietary quercetin inhibited both the incidence and the number of palpable rat mammary tumors; rats fed on 2% quercetin had 25% less incidence of mammary cancer, while the average number of mammary tumors per rat was reduced by 39% at 20 wk post-DMBA administration compared to animals on a control diet. In a separate experiment, a 5% quercetin diet elicited a greater inhibitory effect on the induction of rat mammary tumors by DMBA than was observed with a 2% quercetin diet. The inhibitory effect of quercetin on mammary tumor incidence in rats on 2% and 5% diets and on tumor multiplicity in animals on a 5% diet was statistically significant ( P < 0.05). In addition, the risk of the development of a palpable tumor (as determined by the nonparametric estimate of the hazard function) in the quercetin-fed group was lower than the group on control diet throughout the course of the experiment. Furthermore, 5% dietary quercetin significantly inhibited ( P < 0.05), although to a lesser extent than observed in DMBA-induced tumor formation, both the incidence and the number of palpable mammary tumors per rat induced by N -nitrosomethylurea. Dietary quercetin did not elicit any detectable sign of toxicity. The gain in body weight in rats on the quercetin diet and the quantity of diet consumed per rat per week were similar to those for rats on the control diet.

305 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20236
202215
202121
202018
201912
201823