Topic

# Ab initio

About: Ab initio is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 57307 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1624473 citations. The topic is also known as: ab init..

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an ab initio quantum-mechanical molecular-dynamics calculations based on the calculation of the electronic ground state and of the Hellmann-Feynman forces in the local density approximation.

Abstract: We present ab initio quantum-mechanical molecular-dynamics calculations based on the calculation of the electronic ground state and of the Hellmann-Feynman forces in the local-density approximation at each molecular-dynamics step. This is possible using conjugate-gradient techniques for energy minimization, and predicting the wave functions for new ionic positions using subspace alignment. This approach avoids the instabilities inherent in quantum-mechanical molecular-dynamics calculations for metals based on the use of a fictitious Newtonian dynamics for the electronic degrees of freedom. This method gives perfect control of the adiabaticity and allows us to perform simulations over several picoseconds.

32,798 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the unpolarized absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the fundamental vibrational transitions of the chiral molecule, 4-methyl-2-oxetanone, are calculated ab initio using DFT, MP2, and SCF methodologies and a 5S4P2D/3S2P (TZ2P) basis set.

Abstract: : The unpolarized absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the fundamental vibrational transitions of the chiral molecule, 4-methyl-2-oxetanone, are calculated ab initio. Harmonic force fields are obtained using Density Functional Theory (DFT), MP2, and SCF methodologies and a 5S4P2D/3S2P (TZ2P) basis set. DFT calculations use the Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA), BLYP, and Becke3LYP (B3LYP) density functionals. Mid-IR spectra predicted using LSDA, BLYP, and B3LYP force fields are of significantly different quality, the B3LYP force field yielding spectra in clearly superior, and overall excellent, agreement with experiment. The MP2 force field yields spectra in slightly worse agreement with experiment than the B3LYP force field. The SCF force field yields spectra in poor agreement with experiment.The basis set dependence of B3LYP force fields is also explored: the 6-31G* and TZ2P basis sets give very similar results while the 3-21G basis set yields spectra in substantially worse agreements with experiment. jg

17,871 citations

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TL;DR: The simulation allows us to study in detail the changes in the structure-property relationship through the metal-semiconductor transition, and a detailed analysis of the local structural properties and their changes induced by an annealing process is reported.

Abstract: We present ab initio quantum-mechanical molecular-dynamics simulations of the liquid-metal--amorphous-semiconductor transition in Ge. Our simulations are based on (a) finite-temperature density-functional theory of the one-electron states, (b) exact energy minimization and hence calculation of the exact Hellmann-Feynman forces after each molecular-dynamics step using preconditioned conjugate-gradient techniques, (c) accurate nonlocal pseudopotentials, and (d) Nos\'e dynamics for generating a canonical ensemble. This method gives perfect control of the adiabaticity of the electron-ion ensemble and allows us to perform simulations over more than 30 ps. The computer-generated ensemble describes the structural, dynamic, and electronic properties of liquid and amorphous Ge in very good agreement with experiment. The simulation allows us to study in detail the changes in the structure-property relationship through the metal-semiconductor transition. We report a detailed analysis of the local structural properties and their changes induced by an annealing process. The geometrical, bonding, and spectral properties of defects in the disordered tetrahedral network are investigated and compared with experiment.

16,744 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, effective core potentials (ECP) have been derived to replace the innermost core electron for third row (K), fourth row (Rb-Ag), and fifth row (Cs-Au) atoms.

Abstract: Ab initio effective core potentials (ECP’s) have been generated to replace the innermost core electron for third‐row (K–Au), fourth‐row (Rb–Ag), and fifth‐row (Cs–Au) atoms The outermost core orbitals—corresponding to the ns2np6 configuration for the three rows here—are not replaced by the ECP but are treated on an equal footing with the nd, (n+1)s and (n+1)p valence orbitals These ECP’s have been derived for use in molecular calculations where these outer core orbitals need to be treated explicitly rather than to be replaced by an ECP The ECP’s for the forth and fifth rows also incorporate the mass–velocity and Darwin relativistic effects into the potentials Analytic fits to the potentials are presented for use in multicenter integral evaluation Gaussian orbital valence basis sets are developed for the (3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p), (4s, 4p, 4d, 5s, 5p), and (5s, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p) ortibals of the three respective rows

13,717 citations

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TL;DR: The results demonstrate that use of ab initio structural and energetic data by themselves are not sufficient to obtain an adequate backbone representation for peptides and proteins in solution and in crystals.

Abstract: New protein parameters are reported for the all-atom empirical energy function in the CHARMM program. The parameter evaluation was based on a self-consistent approach designed to achieve a balance between the internal (bonding) and interaction (nonbonding) terms of the force field and among the solvent−solvent, solvent−solute, and solute−solute interactions. Optimization of the internal parameters used experimental gas-phase geometries, vibrational spectra, and torsional energy surfaces supplemented with ab initio results. The peptide backbone bonding parameters were optimized with respect to data for N-methylacetamide and the alanine dipeptide. The interaction parameters, particularly the atomic charges, were determined by fitting ab initio interaction energies and geometries of complexes between water and model compounds that represented the backbone and the various side chains. In addition, dipole moments, experimental heats and free energies of vaporization, solvation and sublimation, molecular volume...

13,164 citations