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# Ab initio quantum chemistry methods

About: Ab initio quantum chemistry methods is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 24413 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 740820 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Ab initio method & Ab initio molecular orbital method.

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Abstract: We present a detailed description and comparison of algorithms for performing ab-initio quantum-mechanical calculations using pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis set. We will discuss: (a) partial occupancies within the framework of the linear tetrahedron method and the finite temperature density-functional theory, (b) iterative methods for the diagonalization of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian and a discussion of an efficient iterative method based on the ideas of Pulay's residual minimization, which is close to an order Natoms2 scaling even for relatively large systems, (c) efficient Broyden-like and Pulay-like mixing methods for the charge density including a new special ‘preconditioning’ optimized for a plane-wave basis set, (d) conjugate gradient methods for minimizing the electronic free energy with respect to all degrees of freedom simultaneously. We have implemented these algorithms within a powerful package called VAMP (Vienna ab-initio molecular-dynamics package). The program and the techniques have been used successfully for a large number of different systems (liquid and amorphous semiconductors, liquid simple and transition metals, metallic and semi-conducting surfaces, phonons in simple metals, transition metals and semiconductors) and turned out to be very reliable.

40,008 citations

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Abstract: We show that quantum-mechanical molecular-dynamics simulations in a finite-temperature local-density approximation based on the calculation of the electronic ground state and of the Hellmann-Feynman forces after each time step are feasible for liquid noble and transition metals. This is possible with the use of Vanderbilt-type ``ultrasoft'' pseudopotentials and efficient conjugate-gradient techniques for the determination of the electronic ground state. Results for liquid copper and vanadium are presented.

5,077 citations

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Abstract: We describe an ab initio method for calculating the electronic structure, electronic transport, and forces acting on the atoms, for atomic scale systems connected to semi-infinite electrodes and with an applied voltage bias. Our method is based on the density-functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the well tested SIESTA approach (which uses nonlocal norm-conserving pseudopotentials to describe the effect of the core electrons, and linear combination of finite-range numerical atomic orbitals to describe the valence states). We fully deal with the atomistic structure of the whole system, treating both the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green's function expressions to the more transparent scheme involving the scattering states. As an illustration, the method is applied to three systems where we are able to compare our results to earlier ab initio DFT calculations or experiments, and we point out differences between this method and existing schemes. The systems considered are: (i) single atom carbon wires connected to aluminum electrodes with extended or finite cross section, (ii) single atom gold wires, and finally (iii) large carbon nanotube systems with point defects.

4,118 citations

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TL;DR: The DFT‐D‐BLYP model seems to be even superior to standard MP2 treatments that systematically overbind, and the approach is suggested as a practical tool to describe the properties of many important van der Waals systems in chemistry.

Abstract: An empirical method to account for van der Waals interactions in practical calculations with the density functional theory (termed DFT-D) is tested for a wide variety of molecular complexes. As in previous schemes, the dispersive energy is described by damped interatomic potentials of the form C6R−6. The use of pure, gradient-corrected density functionals (BLYP and PBE), together with the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation for the Coulomb operator, allows very efficient computations for large systems. Opposed to previous work, extended AO basis sets of polarized TZV or QZV quality are employed, which reduces the basis set superposition error to a negligible extend. By using a global scaling factor for the atomic C6 coefficients, the functional dependence of the results could be strongly reduced. The “double counting” of correlation effects for strongly bound complexes is found to be insignificant if steep damping functions are employed. The method is applied to a total of 29 complexes of atoms and small molecules (Ne, CH4, NH3, H2O, CH3F, N2, F2, formic acid, ethene, and ethine) with each other and with benzene, to benzene, naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene dimers, the naphthalene trimer, coronene · H2O and four H-bonded and stacked DNA base pairs (AT and GC). In almost all cases, very good agreement with reliable theoretical or experimental results for binding energies and intermolecular distances is obtained. For stacked aromatic systems and the important base pairs, the DFT-D-BLYP model seems to be even superior to standard MP2 treatments that systematically overbind. The good results obtained suggest the approach as a practical tool to describe the properties of many important van der Waals systems in chemistry. Furthermore, the DFT-D data may either be used to calibrate much simpler (e.g., force-field) potentials or the optimized structures can be used as input for more accurate ab initio calculations of the interaction energies. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 25: 1463–1473, 2004

3,807 citations

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Abstract: Gaussian-3 theory (G3 theory) for the calculation of molecular energies of compounds containing first (Li–F) and second row (Na–Cl) atoms is presented. This new theoretical procedure, which is based on ab initio molecular-orbital theory, modifies G2 theory [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 7221 (1991)] in several ways including a new sequence of single point energy calculations using different basis sets, a new formulation of the higher level correction, a spin–orbit correction for atoms, and a correction for core correlation. G3 theory is assessed using 299 energies from the G2/97 test set including enthalpies of formation, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and proton affinities. This new procedure corrects many of the deficiencies of G2 theory. There is a large improvement for nonhydrogen systems such as SiF4 and CF4, substituted hydrocarbons, and unsaturated cyclic species. Core-related correlation is found to be a significant factor, especially for species with unsaturated rings. The average absolute devi...

2,513 citations