Topic

# Absorption (logic)

About: Absorption (logic) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5733 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 236302 citation(s).

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the pseudodielectric functions of spectroscopic ellipsometry and refractive indices were measured using the real-time capability of the spectro-optical ellipsometer.

Abstract: We report values of pseudodielectric functions $〈\ensuremath{\epsilon}〉=〈{\ensuremath{\epsilon}}_{1}〉+i〈{\ensuremath{\epsilon}}_{2}〉$ measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry and refractive indices $\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}=n+ik$, reflectivities $R$, and absorption coefficients $\ensuremath{\alpha}$ calculated from these data. Rather than correct ellipsometric results for the presence of overlayers, we have removed these layers as far as possible using the real-time capability of the spectroscopic ellipsometer to assess surface quality during cleaning. Our results are compared with previous data. In general, there is good agreement among optical parameters measured on smooth, clean, and undamaged samples maintained in an inert atmosphere regardless of the technique used to obtain the data. Differences among our data and previous results can generally be understood in terms of inadequate sample preparation, although results obtained by Kramers-Kronig analysis of reflectance measurements often show effects due to improper extrapolations. The present results illustrate the importance of proper sample preparation and of the capability of separately determining both ${\ensuremath{\epsilon}}_{1}$ and ${\ensuremath{\epsilon}}_{2}$ in optical measurements.

2,996 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a numerical Kramers-Kronig analysis is used to predict the refractive index perturbations produced in crystalline silicon by applied electric fields or by charge carriers.

Abstract: A numerical Kramers-Kronig analysis is used to predict the refractive-index perturbations produced in crystalline silicon by applied electric fields or by charge carriers. Results are obtained over the 1.0-2.0 \mu m optical wavelength range. The analysis makes use of experimental electroabsorption spectra and impurity-doping spectra taken from the literature. For electrorefraction at the indirect gap, we find \Delta n = 1.3 \times 10^{5} at \lambda = 1.07 \mu m when E = 10^{5} V/cm, while the Kerr effect gives \Delta n = 10^{-6} at that field strength. The charge-carrier effects are larger, and a depletion or injection of 1018carriers/cm3produces an index change of \pm1.5 \times 10^{-3} at \lambda = 1.3 \mu m.

2,428 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the infrared spectra of 7 ferrites of the formula $M{\mathrm{Fe}}{2}{\mathrm {O}}_{4}, where $M$ designates a divalent metal, are presented and analyzed.

Abstract: The infrared spectra of 7 ferrites of the formula $M{\mathrm{Fe}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{4}$, where $M$ designates a divalent metal, are presented and analyzed. Electronic absorption was observed in the visible and near-infrared regions. Two absorption bands arising from interatomic vibrations were measured and force constants calculated for the stretching of bonds between octahedral or tetrahedral metal ions and oxide ions. These force constants are in agreement with the elastic and thermodynamic properties of these compounds and are sensitive to distribution of metal ions between the alternate sites. The integrated vibrational band intensities were measured: they are compatible with predominantly ionic bonding for these structures.

1,733 citations

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TL;DR: The theory of ferromagnetic resonance absorption was extended in this paper to include the effect of the shape of the specimen and, in the case of a single crystal, of crystal orientation.

Abstract: The theory of ferromagnetic resonance absorption previously developed is extended to include the effect of the shape of the specimen and, in the case of a single crystal, the effect of crystal orientation. The resonance condition may be written ${\ensuremath{\omega}}_{0}=\ensuremath{\gamma}{H}_{\mathrm{eff}}$, where ${H}_{\mathrm{eff}}$ is equal to ${(\mathrm{BH})}^{\frac{1}{2}}$ for a plane surface, $H+2\ensuremath{\pi}M$ for a long circular cylinder, and $H$ for a sphere; the latter two values apply only to the situation in which the eddy current skin depth is large in comparison with the radius of the specimen. In the case of an uniaxial crystal with the axis parallel to the static magnetic field, the value of $H$ to be used in the resonance conditions is increased by $\frac{2K}{M}$, where $K$ is the anisotropy constant. The case of a cubic crystal is also considered. A detailed discussion of macroscopic eddy current effects is given, and it is shown that the usual eddy current losses do not introduce damping terms into the expression for the permeability, when properly interpreted.

1,701 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a review of the experimental measurements which are used to establish the wavelength of this line on an absolute angstrom basis is given, and the recommended wavelength values are listed in \AA{}* units together with probable errors; corresponding energies are given in keV.

Abstract: Inconsistencies in accepted values (in x units) of x-ray reference lines have recently been demonstrated, although all are supposedly based on "good" calcite crystals. Factors supporting the selection of the W $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}$ line as the X-Ray Wavelength Standard are critically discussed. A review is given of the experimental measurements which are used to establish the wavelength of this line on an absolute angstrom basis. Its value is $\ensuremath{\lambda}$ W $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}=(0.2090100\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}5 \mathrm{ppm})$ \AA{}. This may be used to define a new unit, denoted by \AA{}*, such that the W $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}$ wavelength is exactly 0.2090100 \AA{}*; hence 1\AA{}*=1\AA{}\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}5 ppm. The wavelengths of the Ag $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}$, Mo $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}$, Cu $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}$, and the Cr $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{2}$ have been established as secondary standards with probable error of approximately one part per million. Sixty-one additional x-ray lines have been used as reference values in a comprehensive review and reevaluation of more than 2700 emission and absorption wavelengths. The recommended wavelength values are listed in \AA{}* units together with probable errors; corresponding energies are given in keV. A second table lists the wavelengths in numerical order, and likewise includes their energies in keV.

1,407 citations