About: Abstraction (linguistics) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6702 publications have been published within this topic receiving 151665 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Deep learning is making major advances in solving problems that have resisted the best attempts of the artificial intelligence community for many years, and will have many more successes in the near future because it requires very little engineering by hand and can easily take advantage of increases in the amount of available computation and data.
Abstract: Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.
TL;DR: Virtual time is a new paradigm for organizing and synchronizing distributed systems which can be applied to such problems as distributed discrete event simulation and distributed database concurrency control.
Abstract: Virtual time is a new paradigm for organizing and synchronizing distributed systems which can be applied to such problems as distributed discrete event simulation and distributed database concurrency control. Virtual time provides a flexible abstraction of real time in much the same way that virtual memory provides an abstraction of real memory. It is implemented using the Time Warp mechanism, a synchronization protocol distinguished by its reliance on lookahead-rollback, and by its implementation of rollback via antimessages.
••08 Jul 2003
TL;DR: Counterexample-guided abstraction refinement is an automatic abstraction method where the key step is to extract information from false negatives ("spurious counterexamples") due to over-approximation.
Abstract: The main practical problem in model checking is the combinatorial explosion of system states commonly known as the state explosion problem. Abstraction methods attempt to reduce the size of the state space by employing knowledge about the system and the specification in order to model only relevant features in the Kripke structure. Counterexample-guided abstraction refinement is an automatic abstraction method where, starting with a relatively small skeletal representation of the system to be verified, increasingly precise abstract representations of the system are computed. The key step is to extract information from false negatives ("spurious counterexamples") due to over-approximation.
TL;DR: The characteristics of the speech problem in particular, the special kinds of problem-solving uncertainty in that domain, the structure of the Hearsay-II system developed to cope with that uncertainty, and the relationship between Hearsey-II's structure and those of other speech-understanding systems are discussed.
Abstract: The Hearsay-II system, developed during the DARPA-sponsored five-year speech-understanding research program, represents both a specific solution to the speech-understanding problem and a general framework for coordinating independent processes to achieve cooperative problem-solving behavior. As a computational problem, speech understanding reflects a large number of intrinsically interesting issues. Spoken sounds are achieved by a long chain of successive transformations, from intentions, through semantic and syntactic structuring, to the eventually resulting audible acoustic waves. As a consequence, interpreting speech means effectively inverting these transformations to recover the speaker's intention from the sound. At each step in the interpretive process, ambiguity and uncertainty arise. The Hearsay-II problem-solving framework reconstructs an intention from hypothetical interpretations formulated at various levels of abstraction. In addition, it allocates limited processing resources first to the most promising incremental actions. The final configuration of the Hearsay-II system comprises problem-solving components to generate and evaluate speech hypotheses, and a focus-of-control mechanism to identify potential actions of greatest value. Many of these specific procedures reveal novel approaches to speech problems. Most important, the system successfully integrates and coordinates all of these independent activities to resolve uncertainty and control combinatorics. Several adaptations of the Hearsay-II framework have already been undertaken in other problem domains, and it is anticipated that this trend will continue; many future systems necessarily will integrate diverse sources of knowledge to solve complex problems cooperatively. Discussed in this paper are the characteristics of the speech problem in particular, the special kinds of problem-solving uncertainty in that domain, the structure of the Hearsay-II system developed to cope with that uncertainty, and the relationship between Hearsay-II's structure and those of other speech-understanding systems. The paper is intended for the general computer science audience and presupposes no speech or artificial intelligence background.
TL;DR: Using techniques similar to those involved in abstract interpretation, an abstract model of a program is constructed without ever examining the corresponding unabstracted model, and it is shown how this abstract model can be used to verify properties of the original program.
Abstract: We describe a method for using abstraction to reduce the complexity of temporal-logic model checking. Using techniques similar to those involved in abstract interpretation, we construct an abstract model of a program without ever examining the corresponding unabstracted model. We show how this abstract model can be used to verify properties of the original program. We have implemented a system based on these techniques, and we demonstrate their practicality using a number of examples, including a program representing a pipelined ALU circuit with over 101300 states.
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