Topic

# Acceleration

About: Acceleration is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 46886 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 453466 citation(s).

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TL;DR: A mathematical model is formulated which is shown to predict both the qualitative features and the quantitative details observed experimentally in planar, multijoint arm movements, and is successful only when formulated in terms of the motion of the hand in extracorporal space.

Abstract: This paper presents studies of the coordination of voluntary human arm movements. A mathematical model is formulated which is shown to predict both the qualitative features and the quantitative details observed experimentally in planar, multijoint arm movements. Coordination is modeled mathematically by defining an objective function, a measure of performance for any possible movement. The unique trajectory which yields the best performance is determined using dynamic optimization theory. In the work presented here, the objective function is the square of the magnitude of jerk (rate of change of acceleration) of the hand integrated over the entire movement. This is equivalent to assuming that a major goal of motor coordination is the production of the smoothest possible movement of the hand. Experimental observations of human subjects performing voluntary unconstrained movements in a horizontal plane are presented. They confirm the following predictions of the mathematical model: unconstrained point-to-point motions are approximately straight with bell-shaped tangential velocity profiles; curved motions (through an intermediate point or around an obstacle) have portions of low curvature joined by portions of high curvature; at points of high curvature, the tangential velocity is reduced; the durations of the low-curvature portions are approximately equal. The theoretical analysis is based solely on the kinematics of movement independent of the dynamics of the musculoskeletal system and is successful only when formulated in terms of the motion of the hand in extracorporal space. The implications with respect to movement organization are discussed.

3,995 citations

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Abstract: The author considers the possibility that there is not, in fact, much hidden mass in galaxies and galaxy systems. If a certain modified version of the Newtonian dynamics is used to describe the motion of bodies in a gravitational field (of a galaxy, say), the observational results are reproduced with no need to assume hidden mass in appreciable quantities. Various characteristics of galaxies result with no further assumptions. The basis of the modification is the assumption that in the limit of small acceleration a very low a0, the acceleration of a particle at distance r from a mass M satisfies approximately a2/a0 a MGr-2, where a0 is a constant of the dimensions of an acceleration.

2,823 citations

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Abstract: A new mechanism is proposed for acceleration of a power-law distribution of cosmic rays with approximately the observed slope. High-energy particles in the vicinity of a shock are scattered by Alfven waves carried by the converging fluid flow leading to a first-order acceleration process in which the escape time is automatically comparable to the acceleration time. Shocks from supernova explosions propagating through the interstellar medium can account for the acceleration of galactic cosmic rays. Similar processes occurring in extragalactic radio sources can lead to efficient in situ acceleration of relativistic electrons.

1,664 citations

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Abstract: Theoretical predictions of seismic motions as a function of source strength are often expressed as frequency-domain scaling models. The observations of interest to strong-motion seismology, however, are usually in the time domain (e.g., various peak motions, including magnitude). The method of simulation presented here makes use of both domains; its essence is to filter a suite of windowed, stochastic time series so that the amplitude spectra are equal, on the average, to the specified spectra. Because of its success in predicting peak and rms accelerations (Hanks and McGuire, 1981), an ω -squared spectrum with a high-frequency cutoff ( f m), in addition to the usual whole-path anelastic attenuation, and with a constant stress parameter (Δ σ ) has been used in the applications of the simulation method. With these assumptions, the model is particularly simple: the scaling with source size depends on only one parameter—seismic moment or, equivalently, moment magnitude. Besides peak acceleration, the model gives a good fit to a number of ground motion amplitude measures derived from previous analyses of hundreds of recordings from earthquakes in western North America, ranging from a moment magnitude of 5.0 to 7.7. These measures of ground motion include peak velocity, Wood-Anderson instrument response, and response spectra. The model also fits peak velocities and peak accelerations for South African earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 0.4 to 2.4 (with f m = 400 Hz and Δ σ = 50 bars, compared to f m = 15 Hz and Δ σ = 100 bars for the western North America data). Remarkably, the model seems to fit all essential aspects of high-frequency ground motions for earthquakes over a very large magnitude range .
Although the simulation method is useful for applications requiring one or more time series, a simpler, less costly method based on various formulas from random vibration theory will often suffice for applications requiring only peak motions. Hanks and McGuire (1981) used such an approach in their prediction of peak acceleration. This paper contains a generalization of their approach; the formulas used depend on the moments (in the statistical sense) of the squared amplitude spectra, and therefore can be applied to any time series having a stochastic character, including ground acceleration, velocity, and the oscillator outputs on which response spectra and magnitude are based .

1,637 citations

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Abstract: A laser velocity interferometer instrumentation system has been developed which can measure the velocity history of either spectrally or diffusely reflecting surfaces. The system provides two interferometer fringe signals in quadrature to improve resolution and to distinguish between acceleration and deceleration. Accuracies of 2% or better are attainable for peak surface velocities of 0.2 mm/μsec or more. The system has been applied to the measurement of free surface motion in plate‐impact experiments, and to the measurement of the velocity history of a projectile during its acceleration down a long gun barrel.

1,494 citations