scispace - formally typeset

Acquired immune system

About: Acquired immune system is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 25591 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1662353 citation(s). more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/32588
19 Mar 1998-Nature
Abstract: B and T lymphocytes are the mediators of immunity, but their function is under the control of dendritic cells. Dendritic cells in the periphery capture and process antigens, express lymphocyte co-stimulatory molecules, migrate to lymphoid organs and secrete cytokines to initiate immune responses. They not only activate lymphocytes, they also tolerize T cells to antigens that are innate to the body (self-antigens), thereby minimizing autoimmune reactions. Once a neglected cell type, dendritic cells can now be readily obtained in sufficient quantities to allow molecular and cell biological analysis. With knowledge comes the realization that these cells are a powerful tool for manipulating the immune system. more

Topics: Dendritic cell differentiation (70%), Conventional Dendritic Cell (69%), Dendritic cell (68%) more

14,094 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2006.02.015
24 Feb 2006-Cell
Abstract: Microorganisms that invade a vertebrate host are initially recognized by the innate immune system through germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of PRRs, including Toll-like receptors and cytoplasmic receptors, recognize distinct microbial components and directly activate immune cells. Exposure of immune cells to the ligands of these receptors activates intracellular signaling cascades that rapidly induce the expression of a variety of overlapping and unique genes involved in the inflammatory and immune responses. New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity. more

Topics: Pattern recognition receptor (67%), Innate immune system (65%), Acquired immune system (65%) more

9,733 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRC3239
Drew M. Pardoll1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Immune checkpoints refer to the plethora of inhibitory pathways that are crucial to maintaining self-tolerance. Tumour cells induce immune checkpoints to evade immunosurveillance. This Review discusses the progress in targeting immune checkpoints, the considerations for combinatorial therapy and the potential for additional immune-checkpoint targets. more

Topics: Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy (60%), Immune checkpoint (60%), Immunosurveillance (54%) more

8,577 Citations

Charles A. Janeway1, Ruslan Medzhitov1Institutions (1)
Abstract: ▪ Abstract The innate immune system is a universal and ancient form of host defense against infection. Innate immune recognition relies on a limited number of germline-encoded receptors. These receptors evolved to recognize conserved products of microbial metabolism produced by microbial pathogens, but not by the host. Recognition of these molecular structures allows the immune system to distinguish infectious nonself from noninfectious self. Toll-like receptors play a major role in pathogen recognition and initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. Stimulation of Toll-like receptors by microbial products leads to the activation of signaling pathways that result in the induction of antimicrobial genes and inflammatory cytokines. In addition, stimulation of Toll-like receptors triggers dendritic cell maturation and results in the induction of costimulatory molecules and increased antigen-presenting capacity. Thus, microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors helps to direct adaptive immune responses ... more

Topics: Immune receptor (71%), Pattern recognition receptor (70%), Innate immune system (66%) more

7,595 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRI1391
Shizuo Akira1, Kiyoshi Takeda2Institutions (2)
Abstract: One of the mechanisms by which the innate immune system senses the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms is through the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize specific molecular patterns that are present in microbial components. Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also instructs the development of antigen-specific acquired immunity. Here, we review the rapid progress that has recently improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate TLR signalling. more

Topics: Pattern recognition receptor (65%), TIRAP (64%), TLR8 (58%) more

7,430 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

Top Attributes

Show by:

Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Shizuo Akira

56 papers, 46.4K citations

Richard A. Flavell

30 papers, 8.6K citations

Mark J. Smyth

28 papers, 4.9K citations

Mihai G. Netea

25 papers, 2.6K citations

Bart N. Lambrecht

22 papers, 3.7K citations

Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Innate immune system

45.5K papers, 2.7M citations

97% related
Immune system

182.8K papers, 7.9M citations

97% related
T cell

109.5K papers, 5.5M citations

95% related
Toll-like receptor

8.1K papers, 670.2K citations

95% related
Dendritic cell

18.9K papers, 1.1M citations

95% related