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Activated carbon

About: Activated carbon is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 39688 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 920031 citation(s). The topic is also known as: activated charcoal & active carbon.

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Journal ArticleDOI
A. C. Dillon1, Kim M. Jones1, T. A. Bekkedahl1, Ching-Hwa Kiang2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
27 Mar 1997-Nature
Abstract: Pores of molecular dimensions can adsorb large quantities of gases owing to the enhanced density of the adsorbed material inside the pores1, a consequence of the attractive potential of the pore walls. Pederson and Broughton have suggested2 that carbon nanotubes, which have diameters of typically a few nanometres, should be able to draw up liquids by capillarity, and this effect has been seen for low-surface-tension liquids in large-diameter, multi-walled nanotubes3. Here we show that a gas can condense to high density inside narrow, single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs). Temperature-programmed desorption spectrosocopy shows that hydrogen will condense inside SWNTs under conditions that do not induce adsorption within a standard mesoporous activated carbon. The very high hydrogen uptake in these materials suggests that they might be effective as a hydrogen-storage material for fuel-cell electric vehicles.

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3,446 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The technical feasibility of various low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal removal from contaminated water has been reviewed and it is evident from the literature survey of about 100 papers that low- cost adsorbent have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain metal ions as compared to activated carbon.

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Abstract: In this article, the technical feasibility of various low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal removal from contaminated water has been reviewed. Instead of using commercial activated carbon, researchers have worked on inexpensive materials, such as chitosan, zeolites, and other adsorbents, which have high adsorption capacity and are locally available. The results of their removal performance are compared to that of activated carbon and are presented in this study. It is evident from our literature survey of about 100 papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain metal ions as compared to activated carbon. Adsorbents that stand out for high adsorption capacities are chitosan (815, 273, 250 mg/g of Hg(2+), Cr(6+), and Cd(2+), respectively), zeolites (175 and 137 mg/g of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively), waste slurry (1030, 560, 540 mg/g of Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Cr(6+), respectively), and lignin (1865 mg/g of Pb(2+)). These adsorbents are suitable for inorganic effluent treatment containing the metal ions mentioned previously. It is important to note that the adsorption capacities of the adsorbents presented in this paper vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the extent of chemical modifications, and the concentration of adsorbate.

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2,807 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Alan L. Myers1, John M. Prausnitz1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1965-Aiche Journal
Abstract: A simple technique is described for calculating the adsorption equilibria for components in a gaseous mixture, using only data for the pure-component adsorption equilibria at the same temperature and on the same adsorbent. The proposed technique is based on the concept of an ideal adsorbed solution and, using classical surface thermodynamics, an expression analogous to Raoult's law is obtained. The essential idea of the calculation lies in the recognition that in an ideal solution the partial pressure of an adsorbed component is given by the product of its mole fraction in the adsorbed phase and the pressure which it would exert as a pure adsorbed component at the same temperature and spreading pressure as those of the mixture. Predicted isotherms give excellent agreement with experimental data for methane-ethane and ethylene-carbon dioxide on activated carbon and for carbon monoxide-oxygen and propane-propylene on silica gel. The simplicity of the calculation, which requires no data for the mixture, makes it especially useful for engineering applications.

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2,717 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1999-Carbon
Abstract: A NORIT activated carbon was modified by different chemical and thermal treatments (including oxidation in the gas and liquid phases) in order to obtain materials with different surface properties. Several techniques were used to characterize these materials including nitrogen adsorption, chemical and thermal analyses, XPS, TPD and DRIFTS. The results obtained by TPD agree quantitatively with the elemental and proximate analyses of the oxidized materials, and qualitatively with the observations by DRIFTS. A simple deconvolution method is proposed to analyse the TPD spectra, allowing for the quantitative determination of the amount of each functional group on the surface. A multiple gaussian function has been shown to fit the data adequately, the parameters obtained for each fit matching very well the features observed in the experimentally determined TPD spectra. It is shown that gas phase oxidation of the carbon increases mainly the concentration of hydroxyl and carbonyl surface groups, while oxidations in the liquid phase increase especially the concentration of carboxylic acids.

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2,454 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An extensive list of various adsorbents such as natural materials, waste materials from industry, agricultural by-products, and biomass based activated carbon in the removal of various dyes has been compiled here.

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Abstract: In this review article the authors presented up to-date development on the application of adsorption in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. This review article provides extensive literature information about dyes, its classification and toxicity, various treatment methods, and dye adsorption characteristics by various adsorbents. One of the objectives of this review article is to organise the scattered available information on various aspects on a wide range of potentially effective adsorbents in the removal of dyes. Therefore, an extensive list of various adsorbents such as natural materials, waste materials from industry, agricultural by-products, and biomass based activated carbon in the removal of various dyes has been compiled here. Dye bearing waste treatment by adsorption using low cost alternative adsorbent is a demanding area as it has double benefits i.e. water treatment and waste management. Further, activated carbon from biomass has the advantage of offering an effected low cost replacement for non-renewable coal based granular activated carbon provided that they have similar or better adsorption on efficiency. The effectiveness of various adsorbents under different physico-chemical process parameters and their comparative adsorption capacity towards dye adsorption has also been presented. This review paper also includes the affective adsorption factors of dye such as solution pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The applicability of various adsorption kinetic models and isotherm models for dye removal by wide range of adsorbents is also reported here. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed and few suggestions for future research are proposed.

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2,202 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202276
20211,922
20202,240
20192,493
20182,477
20172,570

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Mehrorang Ghaedi

115 papers, 6.3K citations

Teresa J. Bandosz

98 papers, 8.8K citations

Liliana Giraldo

88 papers, 1.5K citations

Juan Carlos Moreno-Piraján

83 papers, 1.5K citations

B.H. Hameed

77 papers, 11.6K citations