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Active antenna

About: Active antenna is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2246 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 26493 citation(s).

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Abstract: This paper surveys recent advances in the area of very large MIMO systems. With very large MIMO, we think of systems that use antenna arrays with an order of magnitude more elements than in systems being built today, say a hundred antennas or more. Very large MIMO entails an unprecedented number of antennas simultaneously serving a much smaller number of terminals. The disparity in number emerges as a desirable operating condition and a practical one as well. The number of terminals that can be simultaneously served is limited, not by the number of antennas, but rather by our inability to acquire channel-state information for an unlimited number of terminals. Larger numbers of terminals can always be accommodated by combining very large MIMO technology with conventional time- and frequency-division multiplexing via OFDM. Very large MIMO arrays is a new research field both in communication theory, propagation, and electronics and represents a paradigm shift in the way of thinking both with regards to theory, systems and implementation. The ultimate vision of very large MIMO systems is that the antenna array would consist of small active antenna units, plugged into an (optical) fieldbus.

2,389 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Simulation results demonstrate that an IRS-aided single-cell wireless system can achieve the same rate performance as a benchmark massive MIMO system without using IRS, but with significantly reduced active antennas/RF chains.
Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is a revolutionary and transformative technology for achieving spectrum and energy efficient wireless communication cost-effectively in the future. Specifically, an IRS consists of a large number of low-cost passive elements each being able to reflect the incident signal independently with an adjustable phase shift so as to collaboratively achieve three-dimensional (3D) passive beamforming without the need of any transmit radio-frequency (RF) chains. In this paper, we study an IRS-aided single-cell wireless system where one IRS is deployed to assist in the communications between a multi-antenna access point (AP) and multiple single-antenna users. We formulate and solve new problems to minimize the total transmit power at the AP by jointly optimizing the transmit beamforming by active antenna array at the AP and reflect beamforming by passive phase shifters at the IRS, subject to users’ individual signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) constraints. Moreover, we analyze the asymptotic performance of IRS’s passive beamforming with infinitely large number of reflecting elements and compare it to that of the traditional active beamforming/relaying. Simulation results demonstrate that an IRS-aided MIMO system can achieve the same rate performance as a benchmark massive MIMO system without using IRS, but with significantly reduced active antennas/RF chains. We also draw useful insights into optimally deploying IRS in future wireless systems.

1,344 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this paper, a novel broadband planar antenna based on the classic Yagi-Uda dipole antenna is presented, and its usefulness as an array antenna is explored. This "quasi-Yagi" antenna is realized on a high dielectric-constant substrate, and is completely compatible with microstrip circuitry and solid-state devices. This antenna achieves a measured 48% frequency bandwidth for voltage standing-wave ratio <2, better than a 12-dB front-to-back ratio, smaller than -15 dB cross polarization, and 3-5-dBi absolute gain. Mutual coupling of the antenna in an array environment is investigated. Finally, three simple arrays are presented, demonstrating the usefulness of the antenna as an array element. This novel antenna should find wide application in wireless communication systems, power combining, phased arrays, and active arrays, as well as millimeter-wave imaging arrays.

357 citations

07 Jun 1995
Abstract: A multichannel radiotelephony system provides two way cordless communications with a plurality of multichannel transceivers portable within a coverage area comprised by a plurality of cells, each associated with a base station and antennas, such as to permit channel frequency reuse in cells within the coverage area. For at least part of the coverage area, the locations of the antennas within the cells and the locations of the base stations are independently mapped, the antennas being associated with active antenna systems and the active antenna systems being connected to the base stations utilizing broadband transmission by means of a fixed bi-directional signal distribution network. The network is connected to the base stations and the antenna systems through suitable interfaces incorporating frequency translation so that available frequency bands in the signal distribution network which will normally be shared with other services, may be utilised. Plural base stations may be co-located. The radio link to the transceivers may be frequency or time division multiplexed, but communication over the network will normally be frequency multiplexed, using separate bands for transmission and reception.

333 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Electrically-small antennas present high-Q impedances characterized by large reactances and small radiation resistances. For such antennas, the effectiveness of passive matching is severely limited by gain-bandwidth theory, which predicts narrow bandwidths and/or poor gain. With receivers, the inability to resolve this impedance mismatch results in poor signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, as compared to using a full-size antenna. With transmitters, the consequence is poor power efficiency. However, in many applications full-size antennas are impractical, and a means is required to effectively match their electrically-small counterparts. This paper presents the technique of non-Foster impedance matching, which employs active networks of negative inductors and capacitors to bypass the restrictions of gain-bandwidth theory. We first review the origins and development of non-Foster impedance matching, and then present experimental results for the non-Foster impedance matching of electrically-small dipoles and monopoles. For receivers, our best measurements on the antenna range demonstrate up to 20 dB improvement in S/N over 20-120 MHz; for transmitters, we show a power efficiency improvement which exceeds a factor of two over an 5% bandwidth about 20 MHz with an average signal power of 1 W to the radiation resistance.

311 citations

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