About: Activity coefficient is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6020 publications have been published within this topic receiving 132928 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a group-contribution method is presented for the prediction of activity coefficients in nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures, which combines the solution-of-functional-groups concept with a model for activity coefficients based on an extension of the quasi chemical theory of liquid mixture (UNIQUAC).
Abstract: A group-contribution method is presented for the prediction of activity coefficients in nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. The method combines the solution-of-functional-groups concept with a model for activity coefficients based on an extension of the quasi chemical theory of liquid mixtures (UNIQUAC). The resulting UNIFAC model (UNIQUAC Functional-group Activity Coefficients) contains two adjustable parameters per pair of functional groups. By using group-interaction parameters obtained from data reduction, activity coefficients in a large number of binary and multicomponent mixtures may be predicted, often with good accuracy. This is demonstrated for mixtures containing water, hydrocarbons, alcohols, chlorides, nitriles, ketones, amines, and other organic fluids in the temperature range 275° to 400°K.
TL;DR: In this article, sufficient thermodynamic data are available to permit calculation of equilibrium constants for a large number of hydrothermal reactions, where the calculations involve entropy estimates, application of average heat capacities, and/or assumptions concerning the temperature dependence of thermodynamic variables and the relative importance of electrostatic and non-electrostatic interaction among the species.
Abstract: Sufficient thermodynamic data are available to permit calculation of equilibrium constants for a large number of hydrothermal reactions. Where the data are incomplete, the calculations involve entropy estimates, application of average heat capacities, and/or assumptions concerning the temperature dependence of thermodynamic variables and the relative importance of electrostatic and non-electrostatic interaction among the species. Temperature stoichiometric activity coefficients for individual ions can be calculated using deviation functions computed from osmotic coefficients for concentrated NaCl solutions. The results of such calculations, together with computed heat capacities, enthalpies, entropies, and equilibrium constants for many hydrothermal species and reactions are presented in tables and diagrams.
TL;DR: The results show that all three mechanisms are important in determining the overall compressive stiffness of cartilage.
Abstract: Swelling of articular cartilage depends on its fixed charge density and distribution, the stiffness of its collagen-proteoglycan matrix, and the ion concentrations in the interstitium. A theory for a tertiary mixture has been developed, including the two fluid-solid phases (biphasic), and an ion phase, representing cation and anion of a single salt, to describe the deformation and stress fields for cartilage under chemical and/or mechanical loads. This triphasic theory combines the physico-chemical theory for ionic and polyionic (proteoglycan) solutions with the biphasic theory for cartilage. The present model assumes the fixed charge groups to remain unchanged, and that the counter-ions are the cations of a single-salt of the bathing solution. The momentum equation for the neutral salt and for the intersitial water are expressed in terms of their chemical potentials whose gradients are the driving forces for their movements. These chemical potentials depend on fluid pressure p, salt concentration c, solid matrix dilatation e and fixed charge density cF. For a uni-uni valent salt such as NaCl, they are given by mu i = mu io + (RT/Mi)ln[gamma 2 +/- c(c + cF)] and mu w = mu wo + [p-RT phi (2c + cF) + Bwe]/pwT, where R, T, Mi, gamma +/-, phi, pwT and Bw are universal gas constant, absolute temperature, molecular weight, mean activity coefficient of salt, osmotic coefficient, true density of water, and a coupling material coefficient, respectively. For infinitesimal strains and material isotropy, the stress-strain relationship for the total mixture stress is sigma = - pI-TcI + lambda s(trE)I + 2 musE, where E is the strain tensor and (lambda s, mu s) are the Lame constants of the elastic solid matrix. The chemical-expansion stress (-Tc) derives from the charge-to-charge repulsive forces within the solid matrix. This theory can be applied to both equilibrium and non-equilibrium problems. For equilibrium free swelling problems, the theory yields the well known Donnan equilibrium ion distribution and osmotic pressure equations, along with an analytical expression for the "pre-stress" in the solid matrix. For the confined-compression swelling problem, it predicts that the applied compressive stress is shared by three load support mechanisms: 1) the Donnan osmotic pressure; 2) the chemical-expansion stress; and 3) the solid matrix elastic stress. Numerical calculations have been made, based on a set of equilibrium free-swelling and confined-compression data, to assess the relative contribution of each mechanism to load support. Our results show that all three mechanisms are important in determining the overall compressive stiffness of cartilage.