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Adaptive optics

About: Adaptive optics is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 13352 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 173364 citation(s). The topic is also known as: AO & Adaptive optics.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A fundus camera equipped with adaptive optics is constructed that provides unprecedented resolution, allowing the imaging of microscopic structures the size of single cells in the living human retina.
Abstract: Even when corrected with the best spectacles or contact lenses, normal human eyes still suffer from monochromatic aberrations that blur vision when the pupil is large. We have successfully corrected these aberrations using adaptive optics, providing normal eyes with supernormal optical quality. Contrast sensitivity to fine spatial patterns was increased when observers viewed stimuli through adaptive optics. The eye's aberrations also limit the resolution of images of the retina, a limit that has existed since the invention of the ophthalmoscope. We have constructed a fundus camera equipped with adaptive optics that provides unprecedented resolution, allowing the imaging of microscopic structures the size of single cells in the living human retina.

1,388 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Angular differential imaging is a high-contrast imaging technique that reduces speckle noise from quasi-static optical aberrations and facilitates the detection of faint nearby companions. A sequence of images is acquired with an altitude/azimuth telescope, the instrument rotator being turned off. This keeps the instrument and telescope optics aligned, stabilizes the instrumental PSF and allows the field of view to rotate with respect to the instrument. For each image, a reference PSF obtained from other images of the sequence is subtracted. All residual images are then rotated to align the field and are median combined. Observed performances are reported for Gemini Altair/NIRI data. Inside the speckle dominated region of the PSF, it is shown that quasi-static PSF noise can be reduced by a factor {approx}5 for each image subtraction. The combination of all residuals then provides an additional gain of the order of the square root of the total number of images acquired. To our knowledge, this is the first time an acquisition strategy and reduction pipeline designed for speckle attenuation and high contrast imaging is demonstrated to significantly get better detection limits with longer integration times at all angular separations. A PSF noise attenuation of 100 was achieved from 2-hourmore » long sequences of images of Vega, reaching a 5-sigma contrast of 20 magnitudes for separations greater than 7''. This technique can be used with currently available instruments to search for {approx} 1 M{sub Jup} exoplanets with orbits of radii between 50 and 300 AU around nearby young stars. The possibility of combining the technique with other high-contrast imaging methods is briefly discussed.« less

1,111 citations

01 May 1991
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the development of Adaptive Optics Imaging Systems, which combines Nonlinear Optics with Linear Analysis of Random Wavefronts, and its applications in Wavefront Reconstruction and System Engineering.
Abstract: History and Background: Introduction. History. Physical Optics: Propagation with Aberrations. Imaging with Aberrations. Representing the Wavefront. Interference. Adaptive Optics Terms. Sources of Aberrations: Atmospheric Turbulence: Descriptions of Atmospheric Turbulence. Refractive Index Structure Constant. Turbulence Effects. Turbulence MTF. Thermal Blooming: Blooming Strength and Critical Power. Turbulence, Jitter, and Thermal Blooming. Non-atmospheric Sources: Optical Misalignments and Jitter. Thermally Induced Distortions of Optics. Manufacturing and Microerrors. Other Sources of Aberrations. Adaptive Optics Compensation: Phase Conjugation. Limitations of Phase Conjugation: Turbulence Spatial Error. Turbulence Temporal Error. Sensor Noise Limitations. Thermal Blooming Compensation. Artificial Guide Stars. Combining the Limitations. Linear Analysis of Random Wavefronts. Linear Analysis of Deterministic Wavefronts: Partial Phase Conjugation. Adaptive Optics Systems: Adaptive Optics Imaging Systems. Beam Propagation Systems: Local Loop Beam Cleanup Systems. Alternative Concepts. Pros and Cons of the Various Approaches. Unconventional Adaptive Optics: Nonlinear Optics. Elastic Photon Scattering, DFWM. Inelastic Photon Scattering. System Engineering. Wavefront Sensing: Directly Measuring Phase: The Non-uniqueness of the Diffraction Pattern. Determining Phase Information from Intensity. Modal and Zonal Sensing. Direct Wavefront Sensing--Modal: Importance of Wavefront Tilt. Measurement of Tilt. Focus Sensing. Modal Sensing of Higher-Order Aberrations. Direct Wavefront Sensing--Zonal: Interferometiric Wavefront Sensing. Hartman Wavefront Sensors. Curvature Sensing. Selecting a Method. Indirect Wavefront Sensing Methods: Multidither Adaptive Optics. Image Sharpening. Wavefront Sampling: Beamsplitters. Hole Gratings. Temporal Duplexing. Reflective Wedges. Diffraction Gratings. Hybrids. Sensitivities of Sampler Concepts. Detectors and Noise. WavefrontCorrection: Modal Tilt Correction. Modal Higher-Order Correction. Segmented Mirrors. Deformable Mirrors: Actuation Techniques. Actuator Influence Functions. Bimorph Corrector Mirrors. Membrane and Micromachine Mirrors. Edge Actuated Mirrors. Large Correcting Optics. Special Correction Devices: Liquid Crystal Phase Modulators. Spatial Light Modulators. Charged-large-array-mirrors. Reconstruction and Controls: Introduction. Single-Channel Linear Control: Fundamental Control Tools. Transfer Functions. Proportional Control. First- and Second-Order Lag. Feedback. Frequency Response of Control Systems. Digital Controls. Multivariate Adaptive Optics Controls: Solution of Linear Equations. Direct Wavefront Reconstruction: Phase from Wavefront Slopes. Modes from Wavefront Slopes. Phase from Wavefront Modes. Modes from Wavefront Modes. Zonal Corrector from Continuous Phase. Modal Corrector from Continuous Phase. Zonal Corrector from Modal Phase. Modal Correctors from Modal Phase. Indirect Reconstructions.Modal Corrector from Wavefront Modes. Zonal Corrector from Wavefront Slopes. Spatiotemporal Considerations. Subject Index.

1,078 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

1,052 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first scanning laser ophthalmoscope that uses adaptive optics to measure and correct the high order aberrations of the human eye is presented, permitting axial sectioning of retinal tissue in vivo.
Abstract: We present the first scanning laser ophthalmoscope that uses adaptive optics to measure and correct the high order aberrations of the human eye. Adaptive optics increases both lateral and axial resolution, permitting axial sectioning of retinal tissue in vivo. The instrument is used to visualize photoreceptors, nerve fibers and flow of white blood cells in retinal capillaries.

884 citations

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