Topic

# Adder

About: Adder is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 24942 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 200752 citation(s).

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TL;DR: A recurstve construction is used to obtain a product circuit for solving the prefix problem and a Boolean clrcmt which has depth 2[Iog2n] + 2 and size bounded by 14n is obtained for n-bit binary addmon.

Abstract: The prefix problem is to compute all the products x t o x2 . . . . o xk for i ~ k .~ n, where o is an associative operation A recurstve construction IS used to obtain a product circuit for solving the prefix problem which has depth exactly [log:n] and size bounded by 4n An application yields fast, small Boolean ctrcmts to simulate fimte-state transducers. By simulating a sequentml adder, a Boolean clrcmt which has depth 2[Iog2n] + 2 and size bounded by 14n Is obtained for n-bit binary addmon The size can be decreased significantly by permitting the depth to increase by an addmve constant

1,133 citations

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03 Dec 2003TL;DR: A solution by which the circuit can be operated even below the ‘critical’ voltage, so that no margins are required and thus more energy can be saved.

Abstract: With increasing clock frequencies and silicon integration, power aware computing has become a critical concern in the design of embedded processors and systems-on-chip. One of the more effective and widely used methods for power-aware computing is dynamic voltage scaling (DVS). In order to obtain the maximum power savings from DVS, it is essential to scale the supply voltage as low as possible while ensuring correct operation of the processor. The critical voltage is chosen such that under a worst-case scenario of process and environmental variations, the processor always operates correctly. However, this approach leads to a very conservative supply voltage since such a worst-case combination of different variabilities is very rare. In this paper, we propose a new approach to DVS, called Razor, based on dynamic detection and correction of circuit timing errors. The key idea of Razor is to tune the supply voltage by monitoring the error rate during circuit operation, thereby eliminating the need for voltage margins and exploiting the data dependence of circuit delay. A Razor flip-flop is introduced that double-samples pipeline stage values, once with a fast clock and again with a time-borrowing delayed clock. A metastability-tolerant comparator then validates latch values sampled with the fast clock. In the event of timing error, a modified pipeline mispeculation recovery mechanism restores correct program state. A prototype Razor pipeline was designed in a 0.18 /spl mu/m technology and was analyzed. Razor energy overhead during normal operation is limited to 3.1%. Analyses of a full-custom multiplier and a SPICE-level Kogge-Stone adder model reveal that substantial energy savings are possible for these devices (up to 64.2%) with little impact on performance due to error recovery (less than 3%).

1,110 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that addition of n-bit binary numbers can be performed on a chip with a regular layout in time proportional to log n and with area proportional to n.

Abstract: With VLSI architecture, the chip area and design regularity represent a better measure of cost than the conventional gate count. We show that addition of n-bit binary numbers can be performed on a chip with a regular layout in time proportional to log n and with area proportional to n.

1,093 citations

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TL;DR: This work examines the possible implementation of logic devices using coupled quantum dot cells, which use these cells to design inverters, programmable logic gates, dedicated AND and OR gates, and non‐interfering wire crossings.

Abstract: We examine the possible implementation of logic devices using coupled quantum dot cells. Each quantum cell contains two electrons which interact Coulombically with neighboring cells. The charge distribution in each cell tends to align along one of two perpendicular axes, which allows the encoding of binary information using the state of the cell. The state of each cell is affected in a very nonlinear way by the states of its neighbors. A line of these cells can be used to transmit binary information. We use these cells to design inverters, programmable logic gates, dedicated AND and OR gates, and non‐interfering wire crossings. Complex arrays are simulated which implement the exclusive‐OR function and a single‐bit full adder.

1,048 citations

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ETH Zurich

^{1}TL;DR: This paper shows that complementary CMOS is the logic style of choice for the implementation of arbitrary combinational circuits if low voltage, low power, and small power-delay products are of concern.

Abstract: Recently reported logic style comparisons based on full-adder circuits claimed complementary pass-transistor logic (CPL) to be much more power-efficient than complementary CMOS. However, new comparisons performed on more efficient CMOS circuit realizations and a wider range of different logic cells, as well as the use of realistic circuit arrangements demonstrate CMOS to be superior to CPL in most cases with respect to speed, area, power dissipation, and power-delay products. An implemented 32-b adder using complementary CMOS has a power-delay product of less than half that of the CPL version. Robustness with respect to voltage scaling and transistor sizing, as well as generality and ease-of-use, are additional advantages of CMOS logic gates, especially when cell-based design and logic synthesis are targeted. This paper shows that complementary CMOS is the logic style of choice for the implementation of arbitrary combinational circuits if low voltage, low power, and small power-delay products are of concern.

844 citations