Topic

# Adjacency matrix

About: Adjacency matrix is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6795 publications have been published within this topic receiving 147465 citations.

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TL;DR: A modularity matrix plays a role in community detection similar to that played by the graph Laplacian in graph partitioning calculations, and a spectral measure of bipartite structure in networks and a centrality measure that identifies vertices that occupy central positions within the communities to which they belong are proposed.

Abstract: We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higher-than-average density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as ``modularity'' over possible divisions of a network. Here we show that this maximization process can be written in terms of the eigenspectrum of a matrix we call the modularity matrix, which plays a role in community detection similar to that played by the graph Laplacian in graph partitioning calculations. This result leads us to a number of possible algorithms for detecting community structure, as well as several other results, including a spectral measure of bipartite structure in networks and a centrality measure that identifies vertices that occupy central positions within the communities to which they belong. The algorithms and measures proposed are illustrated with applications to a variety of real-world complex networks.

4,559 citations

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TL;DR: LexRank as discussed by the authors is a stochastic graph-based method for computing relative importance of textual units for Natural Language Processing (NLP), which is based on the concept of eigenvector centrality.

Abstract: We introduce a stochastic graph-based method for computing relative importance of textual units for Natural Language Processing. We test the technique on the problem of Text Summarization (TS). Extractive TS relies on the concept of sentence salience to identify the most important sentences in a document or set of documents. Salience is typically defined in terms of the presence of particular important words or in terms of similarity to a centroid pseudo-sentence. We consider a new approach, LexRank, for computing sentence importance based on the concept of eigenvector centrality in a graph representation of sentences. In this model, a connectivity matrix based on intra-sentence cosine similarity is used as the adjacency matrix of the graph representation of sentences. Our system, based on LexRank ranked in first place in more than one task in the recent DUC 2004 evaluation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of our approach and apply it to a larger data set including data from earlier DUC evaluations. We discuss several methods to compute centrality using the similarity graph. The results show that degree-based methods (including LexRank) outperform both centroid-based methods and other systems participating in DUC in most of the cases. Furthermore, the LexRank with threshold method outperforms the other degree-based techniques including continuous LexRank. We also show that our approach is quite insensitive to the noise in the data that may result from an imperfect topical clustering of documents.

2,367 citations

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TL;DR: In GNMF, an affinity graph is constructed to encode the geometrical information and a matrix factorization is sought, which respects the graph structure, and the empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world problems.

Abstract: Matrix factorization techniques have been frequently applied in information retrieval, computer vision, and pattern recognition. Among them, Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has received considerable attention due to its psychological and physiological interpretation of naturally occurring data whose representation may be parts based in the human brain. On the other hand, from the geometric perspective, the data is usually sampled from a low-dimensional manifold embedded in a high-dimensional ambient space. One then hopes to find a compact representation,which uncovers the hidden semantics and simultaneously respects the intrinsic geometric structure. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, called Graph Regularized Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GNMF), for this purpose. In GNMF, an affinity graph is constructed to encode the geometrical information and we seek a matrix factorization, which respects the graph structure. Our empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world problems.

1,870 citations

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26 Aug 2001TL;DR: A new spectral co-clustering algorithm is used that uses the second left and right singular vectors of an appropriately scaled word-document matrix to yield good bipartitionings and it can be shown that the singular vectors solve a real relaxation to the NP-complete graph bipartitionsing problem.

Abstract: Both document clustering and word clustering are well studied problems. Most existing algorithms cluster documents and words separately but not simultaneously. In this paper we present the novel idea of modeling the document collection as a bipartite graph between documents and words, using which the simultaneous clustering problem can be posed as a bipartite graph partitioning problem. To solve the partitioning problem, we use a new spectral co-clustering algorithm that uses the second left and right singular vectors of an appropriately scaled word-document matrix to yield good bipartitionings. The spectral algorithm enjoys some optimality properties; it can be shown that the singular vectors solve a real relaxation to the NP-complete graph bipartitioning problem. We present experimental results to verify that the resulting co-clustering algorithm works well in practice.

1,836 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors survey some of the many results known for Laplacian matrices, and present a survey of the most important results in the field of graph analysis.

Abstract: Let G be a graph on n vertices. Its Laplacian matrix is the n -by- n matrix L ( G ) D ( G )− A ( G ), where A(G) is the familiar (0,1) adjacency matrix, and D(G) is the diagonal matrix of vertex degrees. This is primarily an expository article surveying some of the many results known for Laplacian matrices. Its six sections are: Introduction, The Spectrum, The Algebraic Connectivity, Congruence and Equivalence, Chemical Applications, and Immanants.

1,498 citations