About: Adrenal medulla is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6118 publications have been published within this topic receiving 202132 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that NO synthase in the brain to be exclusively associated with discrete neuronal populations, and prominent neural localizations provided the first conclusive evidence for a strong association of NO with neurons.
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO), apparently identical to endothelium-derived relaxing factor in blood vessels, is also formed by cytotoxic macrophages, in adrenal gland and in brain tissue, where it mediates the stimulation by glutamate of cyclic GMP formation in the cerebellum Stimulation of intestinal or anococcygeal nerves liberates NO, and the resultant muscle relaxation is blocked by arginine derivatives that inhibit NO synthesis It is, however, unclear whether in brain or intestine, NO released following nerve stimulation is formed in neurons, glia, fibroblasts, muscle or blood cells, all of which occur in proximity to neurons and so could account for effects of nerve stimulation on cGMP and muscle tone We have now localized NO synthase protein immunohistochemically in the rat using antisera to the purified enzyme We demonstrate NO synthase in the brain to be exclusively associated with discrete neuronal populations NO synthase is also concentrated in the neural innervation of the posterior pituitary, in autonomic nerve fibres in the retina, in cell bodies and nerve fibres in the myenteric plexus of the intestine, in adrenal medulla, and in vascular endothelial cells These prominent neural localizations provide the first conclusive evidence for a strong association of NO with neurons
TL;DR: Occurrence of adrenomedullin indicates the possible existence of a novel system for circulation control and suggests that adrenomed Mullin is a new hormone participating in blood pressure control.
TL;DR: It has now been possible to demonstrate that brain, adrenal medulla, and sympathetically innervated tissues contain a specific hydroxylase that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to dopa.
TL;DR: In the human, primitive blood vessels appear as early as day 15, and a circulation with a beating heart is already established by the end of the third week.
Abstract: I. Introduction THE establishment of a vascular supply is a critical requirement for cellular inflow of nutrients, outflow of waste products, and gas exchange in most tissues and organs (1). In endocrine glands, the vascularization not only serves such needs but also provides a pathway for the specific secretory products (2, 3). Furthermore, in the anterior pituitary (4–6) and in the adrenal medulla (7, 8), an unusual angioarchitecture, where a portal capillary plexus delivers venous blood originating from an adjacent gland, is intimately involved in the control of the secretory activity. In the adrenal medulla, this vascular design may even determine the ultimate secretory product (8). Not surprisingly, the cardiovascular system is the first organ system to develop and reach a functional state in an embryo (9–12). In the human, primitive blood vessels appear as early as day 15, and a circulation with a beating heart is already established by the end of the third week.
TL;DR: Together these agents appear to determine the complex physiologic responses to a variety of stressors.
Abstract: Stress stimulates several adaptive hormonal responses. Prominent among these responses are the secretion of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla, corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex, and adrenocorticotropin from the anterior pituitary. A number of complex interactions are involved in the regulation of these hormones. Glucocorticoids regulate catecholamine biosynthesis in the adrenal medulla and catecholamines stimulate adrenocorticotropin release from the anterior pituitary. In addition, other hormones, including corticotropin-releasing factor, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and arginine vasopressin stimulate while the corticosteroids and somatostatin inhibit adrenocorticotropin secretion. Together these agents appear to determine the complex physiologic responses to a variety of stressors.
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