Adverse pressure gradient
About: Adverse pressure gradient is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3986 publications have been published within this topic receiving 91137 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, a two-equation turbulence model is proposed that is shown to be quite accurate for attached boundary layers in adverse pressure gradient, compressible boundary layers, and free shear flows.
Abstract: A comprehensive and critical review of closure approximations for two-equation turbulence models has been made. Particular attention has focused on the scale-determining equation in an attempt to find the optimum choice of dependent variable and closure approximations. Using a combination of singular perturbation methods and numerical computations, this paper demonstrates that: 1) conventional A:-e and A>w formulations generally are inaccurate for boundary layers in adverse pressure gradient; 2) using "wall functions'' tends to mask the shortcomings of such models; and 3) a more suitable choice of dependent variables exists that is much more accurate for adverse pressure gradient. Based on the analysis, a two-equation turbulence model is postulated that is shown to be quite accurate for attached boundary layers in adverse pressure gradient, compressible boundary layers, and free shear flows. With no viscous damping of the model's closure coefficients and without the aid of wall functions, the model equations can be integrated through the viscous sublayer. Surface boundary conditions are presented that permit accurate predictions for flow over rough surfaces and for flows with surface mass addition.
01 Oct 1992
TL;DR: In this article, two new versions of the k-omega two-equation turbulence model are presented, the baseline model and the Shear-Stress Transport model, which is based on the BSL model, but has the additional ability to account for the transport of the principal shear stress in adverse pressure gradient boundary layers.
Abstract: Two new versions of the k-omega two-equation turbulence model will be presented. The new Baseline (BSL) model is designed to give results similar to those of the original k-omega model of Wilcox, but without its strong dependency on arbitrary freestream values. The BSL model is identical to the Wilcox model in the inner 50 percent of the boundary-layer but changes gradually to the high Reynolds number Jones-Launder k-epsilon model (in a k-omega formulation) towards the boundary-layer edge. The new model is also virtually identical to the Jones-Lauder model for free shear layers. The second version of the model is called Shear-Stress Transport (SST) model. It is based on the BSL model, but has the additional ability to account for the transport of the principal shear stress in adverse pressure gradient boundary-layers. The model is based on Bradshaw's assumption that the principal shear stress is proportional to the turbulent kinetic energy, which is introduced into the definition of the eddy-viscosity. Both models are tested for a large number of different flowfields. The results of the BSL model are similar to those of the original k-omega model, but without the undesirable freestream dependency. The predictions of the SST model are also independent of the freestream values and show excellent agreement with experimental data for adverse pressure gradient boundary-layer flows.
TL;DR: The experiments of McDonald and his co-workers have shown that in the larger arteries of the rabbit and the dog there is a reversal of the flow, and the simple mathematical treatment has strong similarities with the theory of the distribution of alternating current in a conductor of finite size.
Abstract: The experiments of McDonald and his co-workers (McDonald, 1952, 1955; Helps & McDonald, 1953) have shown that in the larger arteries of the rabbit and the dog there is a reversal of the flow. Measurements of the pressure gradient (Helps & McDonald, 1953) showed a phase-lag between pressure gradient and flow somewhat analogous with the phase-lag between voltage and current in a conductor carrying alternating current, and the simple mathematical treatment given below has strong similarities with the theory of the distribution of alternating current in a conductor of finite size.
TL;DR: In this article, structural features resulting from the interaction of a turbulent jet issuing transversely into a uniform stream are described with the help of flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry.
Abstract: Structural features resulting from the interaction of a turbulent jet issuing transversely into a uniform stream are described with the help of flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios from 2 to 10 were investigated at crossflow Reynolds numbers from 3800 to 11400. In particular, the origin and formation of the vortices in the wake are described and shown to be fundamentally different from the well-known phenomenon of vortex shedding from solid bluff bodies. The flow around a transverse jet does not separate from the jet and does not shed vorticity into the wake. Instead, the wake vortices have their origins in the laminar boundary layer of the wall from which the jet issues. It is argued that the closed flow around the jet imposes an adverse pressure gradient on the wall, on the downstream lateral sides of the jet, provoking 'separation events’ in the wall boundary layer on each side. These result in eruptions of boundary-layer fluid and formation of wake vortices that are convected downstream. The measured wake Strouhal frequencies, which depend on the jet-crossflow velocity ratio, match the measured frequencies of the separation events. The wake structure is most orderly and the corresponding wake Strouhal number (0.13) is most sharply defined for velocity ratios near the value 4. Measured wake profiles show deficits of both momentum and total pressure.
01 Sep 1968
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of peristaltic wave propagation on the flow of fluid in the tube and showed that the theoretical pressure rise per wavelength decreases linearly with increasing time-mean flow, and that the percentage of reflux flow can be very high.
Abstract: : Pumping by means of an infinite train of peristaltic waves is investigated under conditions for which (1) the relevant Reynolds number is small enough for inertial effects to be negligible and (2) the wavelength-diameter ratio is large enough for the pressure to be considered uniform over the cross-section. Theoretical results are presented for both plane and axi-symmetric geometries, and for amplitude ratios ranging from zero to full occlusion. For a given amplitude ratio, the theoretical pressure rise per wavelength decreases linearly with increasing time-mean flow. An experiment with a quasi-two-dimensional apparatus confirmed the theoretical values. Calculations of the detailed fluid motions reveal that under many conditions of operation the net time-mean flow is the algebraic difference between a forward time-mean flow in the core of the tube and a backward ('reflux') time-mean flow near the periphery. The percentage of reflux flow can be very high. This reflux phenomenon is probably of physiologic significance in the functioning of the ureter and the gastro-intestinal system. A second fluid mechanical peculiarity with physiological implications is that of 'trapping': under certain conditions an internally-circulating bolus of fluid, lying about the axis, is transported with the wave speed as though it were trapped by the wave. (Author)
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