Topic

# Aerodynamic force

About: Aerodynamic force is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7491 publications have been published within this topic receiving 102639 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that the enhanced aerodynamic performance of insects results from an interaction of three distinct yet interactive mechanisms: delayed stall, rotational circulation, and wake capture.

Abstract: The enhanced aerodynamic performance of insects results from an interaction of three distinct yet interactive mechanisms: delayed stall, rotational circulation, and wake capture. Delayed stall functions during the translational portions of the stroke, when the wings sweep through the air with a large angle of attack. In contrast, rotational circulation and wake capture generate aerodynamic forces during stroke reversals, when the wings rapidly rotate and change direction. In addition to contributing to the lift required to keep an insect aloft, these two rotational mechanisms provide a potent means by which the animal can modulate the direction and magnitude of flight forces during steering maneuvers. A comprehensive theory incorporating both translational and rotational mechanisms may explain the diverse patterns of wing motion displayed by different species of insects.

2,246 citations

02 May 1934

TL;DR: In this paper, the Kutta condition was used to analyze the aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or an air-foil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom.

Abstract: The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom were determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which were identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind, and of zero and first order. The theory, based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability was analyzed. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, was derived. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter k. The flutter velocity, treated as the unknown quantity, was determined as a function of a certain ratio of the frequencies in the separate degrees of freedom for any magnitudes and combinations of the airfoil-aileron parameters.

2,153 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a review of the recent progress in flapping wing aerodynamics and aeroelasticity is presented, where it is realized that a variation of the Reynolds number (wing sizing, flapping frequency, etc.) leads to a change in the leading edge vortex (LEV) and spanwise flow structures, which impacts the aerodynamic force generation.

Abstract: Micro air vehicles (MAVs) have the potential to revolutionize our sensing and information gathering capabilities in areas such as environmental monitoring and homeland security. Flapping wings with suitable wing kinematics, wing shapes, and flexible structures can enhance lift as well as thrust by exploiting large-scale vortical flow structures under various conditions. However, the scaling invariance of both fluid dynamics and structural dynamics as the size changes is fundamentally difficult. The focus of this review is to assess the recent progress in flapping wing aerodynamics and aeroelasticity. It is realized that a variation of the Reynolds number (wing sizing, flapping frequency, etc.) leads to a change in the leading edge vortex (LEV) and spanwise flow structures, which impacts the aerodynamic force generation. While in classical stationary wing theory, the tip vortices (TiVs) are seen as wasted energy, in flapping flight, they can interact with the LEV to enhance lift without increasing the power requirements. Surrogate modeling techniques can assess the aerodynamic outcomes between two- and three-dimensional wing. The combined effect of the TiVs, the LEV, and jet can improve the aerodynamics of a flapping wing. Regarding aeroelasticity, chordwise flexibility in the forward flight can substantially adjust the projected area normal to the flight trajectory via shape deformation, hence redistributing thrust and lift. Spanwise flexibility in the forward flight creates shape deformation from the wing root to the wing tip resulting in varied phase shift and effective angle of attack distribution along the wing span. Numerous open issues in flapping wing aerodynamics are highlighted.

877 citations

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TL;DR: A standard quasi-steady model of insect flight is modified to include rotational forces, translational forces and the added mass inertia, and the revised model predicts the time course of force generation for several different patterns of flapping kinematics more accurately than a model based solely on translational force coefficients.

Abstract: We used a dynamically scaled model insect to measure the rotational forces produced by a flapping insect wing. A steadily translating wing was rotated at a range of constant angular velocities, and the resulting aerodynamic forces were measured using a sensor attached to the base of the wing. These instantaneous forces were compared with quasi-steady estimates based on translational force coefficients. Because translational and rotational velocities were constant, the wing inertia was negligible, and any difference between measured forces and estimates based on translational force coefficients could be attributed to the aerodynamic effects of wing rotation. By factoring out the geometry and kinematics of the wings from the rotational forces, we determined rotational force coefficients for a range of angular velocities and different axes of rotation. The measured coefficients were compared with a mathematical model developed for two-dimensional motions in inviscid fluids, which we adapted to the three-dimensional case using blade element theory. As predicted by theory, the rotational coefficient varied linearly with the position of the rotational axis for all angular velocities measured. The coefficient also, however, varied with angular velocity, in contrast to theoretical predictions. Using the measured rotational coefficients, we modified a standard quasi-steady model of insect flight to include rotational forces, translational forces and the added mass inertia. The revised model predicts the time course of force generation for several different patterns of flapping kinematics more accurately than a model based solely on translational force coefficients. By subtracting the improved quasi-steady estimates from the measured forces, we isolated the aerodynamic forces due to wake capture.

746 citations