Topic

# Affine coordinate system

About: Affine coordinate system is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1957 publications have been published within this topic receiving 35980 citations.

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TL;DR: A comparative evaluation of different detectors is presented and it is shown that the proposed approach for detecting interest points invariant to scale and affine transformations provides better results than existing methods.

Abstract: In this paper we propose a novel approach for detecting interest points invariant to scale and affine transformations. Our scale and affine invariant detectors are based on the following recent results: (1) Interest points extracted with the Harris detector can be adapted to affine transformations and give repeatable results (geometrically stable). (2) The characteristic scale of a local structure is indicated by a local extremum over scale of normalized derivatives (the Laplacian). (3) The affine shape of a point neighborhood is estimated based on the second moment matrix.
Our scale invariant detector computes a multi-scale representation for the Harris interest point detector and then selects points at which a local measure (the Laplacian) is maximal over scales. This provides a set of distinctive points which are invariant to scale, rotation and translation as well as robust to illumination changes and limited changes of viewpoint. The characteristic scale determines a scale invariant region for each point. We extend the scale invariant detector to affine invariance by estimating the affine shape of a point neighborhood. An iterative algorithm modifies location, scale and neighborhood of each point and converges to affine invariant points. This method can deal with significant affine transformations including large scale changes. The characteristic scale and the affine shape of neighborhood determine an affine invariant region for each point.
We present a comparative evaluation of different detectors and show that our approach provides better results than existing methods. The performance of our detector is also confirmed by excellent matching resultss the image is described by a set of scale/affine invariant descriptors computed on the regions associated with our points.

3,971 citations

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TL;DR: A novel approach for detecting affine invariant interest points that can deal with significant affine transformations including large scale changes and shows an excellent performance in the presence of large perspective transformations including significant scale changes.

Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach for detecting affine invariant interest points. Our method can deal with significant affine transformations including large scale changes. Such transformations introduce significant changes in the point location as well as in the scale and the shape of the neighbourhood of an interest point. Our approach allows to solve for these problems simultaneously. It is based on three key ideas : 1) The second moment matrix computed in a point can be used to normalize a region in an affine invariant way (skew and stretch). 2) The scale of the local structure is indicated by local extrema of normalized derivatives over scale. 3) An affine-adapted Harris detector determines the location of interest points. A multi-scale version of this detector is used for initialization. An iterative algorithm then modifies location, scale and neighbourhood of each point and converges to affine invariant points. For matching and recognition, the image is characterized by a set of affine invariant points; the affine transformation associated with each point allows the computation of an affine invariant descriptor which is also invariant to affine illumination changes. A quantitative comparison of our detector with existing ones shows a significant improvement in the presence of large affine deformations. Experimental results for wide baseline matching show an excellent performance in the presence of large perspective transformations including significant scale changes. Results for recognition are very good for a database with more than 5000 images.

1,584 citations

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TL;DR: The proposed affine-SIFT (ASIFT), simulates all image views obtainable by varying the two camera axis orientation parameters, namely, the latitude and the longitude angles, left over by the SIFT method, and will be mathematically proved to be fully affine invariant.

Abstract: If a physical object has a smooth or piecewise smooth boundary, its images obtained by cameras in varying positions undergo smooth apparent deformations. These deformations are locally well approximated by affine transforms of the image plane. In consequence the solid object recognition problem has often been led back to the computation of affine invariant image local features. Such invariant features could be obtained by normalization methods, but no fully affine normalization method exists for the time being. Even scale invariance is dealt with rigorously only by the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) method. By simulating zooms out and normalizing translation and rotation, SIFT is invariant to four out of the six parameters of an affine transform. The method proposed in this paper, affine-SIFT (ASIFT), simulates all image views obtainable by varying the two camera axis orientation parameters, namely, the latitude and the longitude angles, left over by the SIFT method. Then it covers the other four parameters by using the SIFT method itself. The resulting method will be mathematically proved to be fully affine invariant. Against any prognosis, simulating all views depending on the two camera orientation parameters is feasible with no dramatic computational load. A two-resolution scheme further reduces the ASIFT complexity to about twice that of SIFT. A new notion, the transition tilt, measuring the amount of distortion from one view to another, is introduced. While an absolute tilt from a frontal to a slanted view exceeding 6 is rare, much higher transition tilts are common when two slanted views of an object are compared (see Figure hightransitiontiltsillustration). The attainable transition tilt is measured for each affine image comparison method. The new method permits one to reliably identify features that have undergone transition tilts of large magnitude, up to 36 and higher. This fact is substantiated by many experiments which show that ASIFT significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods SIFT, maximally stable extremal region (MSER), Harris-affine, and Hessian-affine.

1,364 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the affine product and quasi-affine system were introduced to characterize the structure of affine systems, and sufficient conditions for constructing tight affine frames from multiresolution were given.

Abstract: Discrete affine systems are obtained by applying dilations to a given shift-invariant system. The complicated structure of the affine system is due, first and foremost, to the fact that it is not invariant under shifts. Affine frames carry the additional difficulty that they are “global” in nature: it is the entire interaction between the various dilation levels that determines whether the system is a frame, and not the behaviour of the system within one dilation level. We completely unravel the structure of the affine system with the aid of two new notions:the affine product, anda quasi-affine system. This leads to a characterization of affine frames; the induced characterization of tight affine frames is in terms of exact orthogonality relations that the wavelets should satisfy on the Fourier domain. Several results, such as a general oversampling theorem follow from these characterizations. Most importantly, the affine product can be factored during a multiresolution analysis construction, and this leads to a complete characterization of all tight frames that can be constructed by such methods. Moreover, this characterization suggests very simple sufficient conditions for constructing tight frames from multiresolution. Of particular importance are the facts that the underlying scaling function does not need to satisfy any a priori conditions, and that the freedom offered by redundancy can be fully exploited in these constructions.

684 citations

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TL;DR: A comprehensive review of methods of numerically generating curvilinear coordinate systems with coordinate lines coincident with all boundary segments is given in this article, along with a general mathematical framework and error analysis common to such coordinate systems.

Abstract: A comprehensive review of methods of numerically generating curvilinear coordinate systems with coordinate lines coincident with all boundary segments is given. Some general mathematical framework and error analysis common to such coordinate systems is also included. The general categories of generating systems are those based on conformal mapping, orthogonal systems, nearly orthogonal systems, systems produced as the solution of elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations, and systems generated algebraically by interpolation among the boundaries. Also covered are the control of coordinate line spacing by functions embedded in the partial differential operators of the generating system and by subsequent stretching transformation. Dynamically adaptive coordinate systems, coupled with the physical solution, and time-dependent systems that follow moving boundaries are treated. References reporting experience using such coordinate systems are reviewed as well as those covering the system development.

529 citations