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Agriculture

About: Agriculture is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 80887 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1345248 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1185383
12 Feb 2010-Science
Abstract: Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.

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Topics: Food security (70%), Food systems (65%), Food processing (58%) ...read more

7,758 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE01014
08 Aug 2002-Nature
Abstract: A doubling in global food demand projected for the next 50 years poses huge challenges for the sustainability both of food production and of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Agriculturalists are the principal managers of global useable lands and will shape, perhaps irreversibly, the surface of the Earth in the coming decades. New incentives and policies for ensuring the sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be crucial if we are to meet the demands of improving yields without compromising environmental integrity or public health.

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Topics: Sustainability organizations (62%), Sustainability (59%), Ecosystem services (54%) ...read more

5,861 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1890/1051-0761(1998)008[0559:NPOSWW]2.0.CO;2
Abstract: Agriculture and urban activities are major sources of phosphorus and nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems. Atmospheric deposition further contributes as a source of N. These nonpoint inputs of nutrients are difficult to measure and regulate because they derive from activities dispersed over wide areas of land and are variable in time due to effects of weather. In aquatic ecosystems, these nutrients cause diverse problems such as toxic algal blooms, loss of oxygen, fish kills, loss of biodiversity (including species important for commerce and recreation), loss of aquatic plant beds and coral reefs, and other problems. Nutrient enrichment seriously degrades aquatic ecosystems and impairs the use of water for drinking, industry, agriculture, recreation, and other purposes. Based on our review of the scientific literature, we are certain that (1) eutrophication is a widespread problem in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal oceans, caused by overenrichment with P and N; (2) nonpoint pollution, a major source of P and N to surface waters of the United States, results primarily from agriculture and urban activity, including industry; (3) inputs of P and N to agriculture in the form of fertilizers exceed outputs in produce in the United States and many other nations; (4) nutrient flows to aquatic ecosystems are directly related to animal stocking densities, and under high livestock densities, manure production exceeds the needs of crops to which the manure is applied; (5) excess fertilization and manure production cause a P surplus to accumulate in soil, some of which is transported to aquatic ecosystems; and (6) excess fertilization and manure production on agricultural lands create surplus N, which is mobile in many soils and often leaches to downstream aquatic ecosystems, and which can also volatilize to the atmosphere, redepositing elsewhere and eventually reaching aquatic ecosystems. If current practices continue, nonpoint pollution of surface waters is virtually certain to increase in the future. Such an outcome is not inevitable, however, because a number of technologies, land use practices, and conservation measures are capable of decreasing the flow of nonpoint P and N into surface waters. From our review of the available scientific information, we are confident that: (1) nonpoint pollution of surface waters with P and N could be reduced by reducing surplus nutrient flows in agricultural systems and processes, reducing agricultural and urban runoff by diverse methods, and reducing N emissions from fossil fuel burning; and (2) eutrophication can be reversed by decreasing input rates of P and N to aquatic ecosystems, but rates of recovery are highly variable among water bodies. Often, the eutrophic state is persistent, and recovery is slow.

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  • TABLE 2. Adverse effects on lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and coastal oceans caused by eutrophication (modified from Smith 1998).
    TABLE 2. Adverse effects on lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and coastal oceans caused by eutrophication (modified from Smith 1998).
  • TABLE 3. Nitrogen and phosphorus discharges to surface waters (in 103 Mg/yr) from nonpoint and point sources in the United States.
    TABLE 3. Nitrogen and phosphorus discharges to surface waters (in 103 Mg/yr) from nonpoint and point sources in the United States.
  • FIG. 1. Inputs, outputs, and processes of transport of P and N from agricultural land.
    FIG. 1. Inputs, outputs, and processes of transport of P and N from agricultural land.
  • TABLE 4. Phosphorus balance and efficiency of plant and animal uptake of P for the United States (N.R.C. 1993b) and several European countries (Isermann 1991).
    TABLE 4. Phosphorus balance and efficiency of plant and animal uptake of P for the United States (N.R.C. 1993b) and several European countries (Isermann 1991).
  • FIG. 2. Effect of soil test P (Mehlich-3) on the dissolved P concentration of runoff from pasture catchments in Arkansas (fescue: y 5 0.32 1 0.0031x; R2 5 0.76), New Zealand (y 5 0.01 1 0.0033x; R2 5 0.85), and Oklahoma (fescue: y 5 0.02 1 0.0031x; R2 5 0.88), modified from Sharpley et al. (1996).
    FIG. 2. Effect of soil test P (Mehlich-3) on the dissolved P concentration of runoff from pasture catchments in Arkansas (fescue: y 5 0.32 1 0.0031x; R2 5 0.76), New Zealand (y 5 0.01 1 0.0033x; R2 5 0.85), and Oklahoma (fescue: y 5 0.02 1 0.0031x; R2 5 0.88), modified from Sharpley et al. (1996).
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Topics: Eutrophication (61%), Aquatic ecosystem (60%), Nonpoint source pollution (59%) ...read more

5,265 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE10452
20 Oct 2011-Nature
Abstract: Increasing population and consumption are placing unprecedented demands on agriculture and natural resources. Today, approximately a billion people are chronically malnourished while our agricultural systems are concurrently degrading land, water, biodiversity and climate on a global scale. To meet the world's future food security and sustainability needs, food production must grow substantially while, at the same time, agriculture's environmental footprint must shrink dramatically. Here we analyse solutions to this dilemma, showing that tremendous progress could be made by halting agricultural expansion, closing 'yield gaps' on underperforming lands, increasing cropping efficiency, shifting diets and reducing waste. Together, these strategies could double food production while greatly reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture.

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Topics: Food security (60%), Food systems (60%), Agriculture (55%) ...read more

4,917 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1116437108
Abstract: Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. Here, we project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative ways that this demand might be met. We find that per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960. This relationship forecasts a 100–110% increase in global crop demand from 2005 to 2050. Quantitative assessments show that the environmental impacts of meeting this demand depend on how global agriculture expands. If current trends of greater agricultural intensification in richer nations and greater land clearing (extensification) in poorer nations were to continue, ∼1 billion ha of land would be cleared globally by 2050, with CO2-C equivalent greenhouse gas emissions reaching ∼3 Gt y−1 and N use ∼250 Mt y−1 by then. In contrast, if 2050 crop demand was met by moderate intensification focused on existing croplands of underyielding nations, adaptation and transfer of high-yielding technologies to these croplands, and global technological improvements, our analyses forecast land clearing of only ∼0.2 billion ha, greenhouse gas emissions of ∼1 Gt y−1, and global N use of ∼225 Mt y−1. Efficient management practices could substantially lower nitrogen use. Attainment of high yields on existing croplands of underyielding nations is of great importance if global crop demand is to be met with minimal environmental impacts.

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Topics: Land use, land-use change and forestry (53%), Food security (52%), Greenhouse gas (52%) ...read more

4,192 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022121
20214,176
20204,410
20194,159
20184,034
20173,999

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Rattan Lal

69 papers, 3.7K citations

Mark W. Rosegrant

57 papers, 7.4K citations

Ken E. Giller

48 papers, 2.5K citations

Thomas S. Jayne

46 papers, 1.5K citations

Claudia Ringler

44 papers, 3.2K citations

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