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Air pollutant concentrations

About: Air pollutant concentrations is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1652 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 36138 citation(s).

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01 Jan 1994
Abstract: This paper outlines the history of air pollution in the UK, describes the types of pollutant now in the atmosphere, and discusses the relation between air pollution and health. The primary pollutants, which are directly discharged into the atmosphere, often from vehicle exhaust emissions, are: (1) sulphur dioxide (SO2); (2) nitrogen oxides (NOx); (3) smoke and particulates; (4) carbon monoxide (CO); (5) carbon dioxide (CO2); (6) organic compounds; and (7) metals, especially lead and calcium. The secondary pollutants, derived from primary pollutants, by chemical changes, include: (1) ground ozone, an important constituent of photochemical smog; and (2) acid aerosols. It is now proved beyond reasonable doubt that sufficiently high concentrations of atmospheric pollution have severe health effects. Various biological and medical methodologies can be used to evaluate their effects on health. Asthma and rhinitis are two important respiratory diseases, whose causes include air pollution. For the covering abstract see IRRD 869702.

1,199 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examination of data from a second cross-sectional assessment of the association of air pollution with chronic respiratory health of children participating in the Six Cities Study of Air Pollution and Health suggests that children with hyperreactive airways may be particularly susceptible to other respiratory symptoms when exposed to these pollutants.
Abstract: Results are presented from a second cross-sectional assessment of the association of air pollution with chronic respiratory health of children participating in the Six Cities Study of Air Pollution and Health. Air pollution measurements collected at quality-controlled monitoring stations included total suspended particulates (TSP), particulate matter less than 15 microns (PM15) and 2.5 microns (PM2.5) aerodynamic diameter, fine fraction aerosol sulfate (FSO4), SO2, O3, and No2. Reported rates of chronic cough, bronchitis, and chest illness during the 1980-1981 school year were positively associated with all measures of particulate pollution (TSP, PM15, PM2.5, and FSO4) and positively but less strongly associated with concentrations of two of the gases (SO2 and NO2). Frequency of earache also tended to be associated with particulate concentrations, but no associations were found with asthma, persistent wheeze, hay fever, or nonrespiratory illness. No associations were found between pollutant concentrations and any of the pulmonary function measures considered (FVC, FEV1, FEV0.75, and MMEF). Children with a history of wheeze or asthma had a much higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and there was some evidence that the association between air pollutant concentrations and symptom rates was stronger among children with these markers for hyperreactive airways. These data provide further evidence that rates of respiratory illnesses and symptoms are elevated among children living in cities with high particulate pollution. They also suggest that children with hyperreactive airways may be particularly susceptible to other respiratory symptoms when exposed to these pollutants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

666 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Numerous studies have indicated associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Such associations, if determined to be causal, are likely to result in significant public health impacts given the widespread exposure to air pollution and the fact that low birth weight (LBW) or preterm births are subsequently associated with long-term sequelae such as developmental disability and chronic lung disease (Cano et al. 2001; Dik et al. 2004). Determination of a causal relationship between air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes would have implications for burden of disease measures and add to the importance of strategies to mitigate the health effects of air pollution exposure. Previous studies have been reviewed in detail. Sram et al. (2005) concluded that evidence is sufficient to support a causal association between ambient concentrations of particulate matter and LBW, but evidence of effects for other pollutants and for other outcomes such as preterm birth is less robust. Maisonet et al. (2004) concluded that studies to date support small effects of air pollution on preterm birth and small for gestational age birth (SGA), but not full-term LBW. In a systematic review, Glinianaia et al. (2004) suggested that evidence of associations with air pollution and fetal growth or pregnancy duration is limited and inconclusive and argued for population-based cohort designs using high-quality individual exposure estimates. These reviews highlight the difficulties in interpreting an evidence base with differences among methods and with important limitations. First, most studies are either time-series studies (Dugandzic et al. 2006; Liu et al. 2003, 2007; Mannes et al. 2005; Sagiv et al. 2005) that relate relatively short-term changes in air pollution concentrations to temporal changes in rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes or, less frequently, cohort analyses that compare outcomes between locations with differing levels of ambient air pollution (Salam et al. 2005) based on interpolated ambient monitoring network data. Between-city comparisons are subject to potential confounding because covariates may be highly correlated with air pollution, whereas time-series studies are problematic to interpret because they relate short-term changes in air pollution that are driven primarily by meteorology to outcomes. They inherently assume that the impact of air pollution on birth outcomes is acute, require knowledge of the relevant periods of pregnancy during which air pollution may have impacts, and are subject to potential confounding by seasonally varying factors. As reviewed by Glinianaia et al. (2004), a number of studies have suggested stronger relationships between birth outcomes and exposure during specific periods of pregnancy based on comparison of statistical effect sizes. However, results across studies have not consistently identified specific periods of exposure that are most closely linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Increasingly, air pollution researchers have identified important spatial variability in air pollution concentrations within airsheds (Hoek et al. 2002b; Lewne et al. 2004; Zhang et al. 2004; Zhu et al. 2004). In many situations these contrasts are of greater magnitude than between-city or temporal contrasts (Jerrett et al. 2005). Such spatial contrasts, primarily related to measures of proximity to traffic corridors, have been associated with a number of health impacts including mortality (Hoek et al. 2002a; Maynard et al. 2007; Miller et al. 2007; Nafstad et al. 2004; Roemer and van Wijnen 2001), asthma and respiratory symptoms (Bayer-Oglesby et al. 2006; Brauer et al. 2002, 2007; Gauderman et al. 2005, 2007; McConnell et al. 2006; Ryan et al. 2005; Smargiassi et al. 2006), and otitis media (Brauer et al. 2006). Application of within-airshed spatial contrasts in birth outcome studies are few (Leem et al. 2006; Parker et al. 2005; Ritz and Yu 1999; Ritz et al. 2000; Slama et al. 2007; Wilhelm and Ritz 2003, 2005). These studies, though provocative, have been limited largely to Southern California—a metropolitan area with relatively high levels of ambient air pollution. They relied on interpolated ambient monitoring data or simple road proximity measures rather than high-resolution spatial contrasts in concentrations. We sought to assess the relationship between reproductive outcomes and spatial and temporally varying levels of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, a city with relatively low levels of ambient air pollution. We estimated exposures at the individual level, for a population-based cohort using both monitor-based methods and land use regression models based on proximity to traffic sources, land use, population density, and topographic features. Even in Vancouver, an area with a dense ambient monitoring network, exposure assessment based on regulatory monitoring network data is more suited to characterizing temporal variability. Land use regression models, even those with temporal components, as in this analysis, focus on high-resolution spatial variability in air pollutant concentrations. The literature describing associations between air pollution and birth outcomes has focused on clinically defined outcomes of LBW and preterm birth, defined in a variety of ways, which complicates comparisons. The underlying biological processes—fetal growth restriction and inadequate gestational length—are incompletely understood and imperfectly represented in routinely available perinatal measurements available in vital statistic records. We elected to focus on SGA births as a primary outcome measure, because birth weight as a function of gestational age has a direct effect on perinatal morbidity and mortality (Pollack and Divon 1992). LBW may result from complex and multiple pathways of fetal growth restriction attributed to maternal, fetal, or placental factors. Three broad categories of biological factors have been suggested to play a role in inadequate fetal gestation: abnormality of the biological clock, abnormal implantation, and infection and inflammation (Mattison et al. 2003). The current theories provide multiple sites at which environmental factors may influence biological factors to modulate fetal growth and induce preterm birth. However, specific toxicologic mechanisms including relevant timing during gestational development are not known. We explored each of these processes, fetal growth restriction and inadequate gestational length, separately, and explored the influences of exposure timing in early and late pregnancy.

534 citations

01 Aug 1994
Abstract: Introduction to air pollution control air pollution effects air pollution control laws and regulations, air pollution control philosophies air pollution measurements, emission estimates air pollution meteorology air pollution concentration models general ideas in air pollution control the nature of particulate air pollutants control of primary particulate air pollutants control of volatile organic compounds (VOC) control of sulphur oxides control of nitrogen oxides the motor vehicle problem air pollutants and the global climate other topics.

529 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Reasonable air pollution control policies depend upon a comparison of the costs of air pollution losses with the costs of controls. Present estimates of national economic losses to agricultural and ornamental vegetation are based primarily on field observations and partially on growth and yield data obtained from closed-top field chambers and greenhouses. This research describes the design and evaluation of an open-top field chamber that was developed to provide an environment more closely resembling ambient conditions than the environment found in closed-top chambers. Temperature and relative humidity within open-top chambers were similar to ambient conditions. Direct sunlight reached the plants for a portion of each day and rain entered, although not always uniformly over the chamber base. Chambers receiving charcoal-filtered air protected sensitive ‘Bel W₃’ tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) from ambient ozone concentrations. Plants growing in chambers receiving unfiltered air or in ambient air plots were severely injured.

496 citations

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