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Albatross

About: Albatross is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1099 publications have been published within this topic receiving 28135 citations. The topic is also known as: Diomedeidae & gooney bird.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study demonstrates that predators of several species adjust their foraging behaviour to the heterogeneous environment and these scale-dependent movement adjustments depend on both forager and environment characteristics.
Abstract: 1. In order to study and predict population distribution, it is crucial to identify and understand factors affecting individual movement decisions at different scales. Movements of foraging animals should be adjusted to the hierarchical spatial distribution of resources in the environment and this scale-dependent response to environmental heterogeneity should differ according to the forager's characteristics and exploited habitats. 2. Using First-Passage Time analysis, we studied scales of search effort and habitat used by individuals of seven sympatric Indian Ocean Procellariiform species fitted with satellite transmitters. We characterized their search effort distribution and examined whether species differ in scale-dependent adjustments of their movements according to the marine environment exploited. 3. All species and almost all individuals (91% of 122 individuals) exhibited an Area-Restricted Search (ARS) during foraging. At a regional scale (1000s km), foraging ranges showed a large spatial overlap between species. At a smaller scale (100s km, at which an increase in search effort occurred), a segregation in environmental characteristics of ARS zones (where search effort is high) was found between species. 4. Spatial scales at which individuals increased their search effort differed between species and also between exploited habitats, indicating a similar movement adjustment for predators foraging in the same habitat. ARS zones of the two populations of wandering albatross Diomedea exulans (Crozet and Kerguelen) were similar in their adjustments (i.e. same ARS scale) as well as in their environmental characteristics. These two populations showed a weak spatial overlap in their foraging distribution, with males foraging in more southerly waters than females in both populations. 5. This study demonstrates that predators of several species adjust their foraging behaviour to the heterogeneous environment and these scale-dependent movement adjustments depend on both forager and environment characteristics.

472 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show a coherent, though complex, pattern of within and between species similarities and differences that mainly reflect the degree of dependence on krill, the feasibility of taking alternative prey and constraints on trip duration and/or meal size imposed by foraging adaptations.
Abstract: Knowledge of relationships between prey availability and predator performance is the key to using predators as indicators of the state of marine systems and to assessing potential consequences of competition between natural predators and man for common resources. Fluctuations in the abundance of Antarctic krill are believed to have a substantial influence on the reproductive performance of krill-dependent top predator species in the Southern Ocean; few quantifications of such interactions exist. At South Georgia, for 2 years in which acoustic surveys revealed a major difference in krill abundance, we compared diet, provisioning of offspring and breeding success in 4 main predator species (2 penguins, 2 albatrosses, with supporting data from Antarctic fur seal) whose dependence on krill typically ranges from 20 to 90%. The 4-fold difference in krill biomass between 1986 (ca 30 g m-2) and 1994 (ca 7 g m-2) was accompanied by (1) an 88 to 90% reduction in the mass of krill in predator diets (and some increase in the fish component), (2) greater prey diversity for most species, (3) reduced diet overlap between species and (4) a switch from krill to amphipods in macaroni penguin but no major dietary change in other species. Rates of provisioning of offspring decreased by 90% in gentoo penguin and 40 to 50% in the other 3 species; this was due to reduced meal size in penguins (by 90% in gentoo and 50% in macaroni) and to doubling of foraging trip duration in albatrosses. Breeding success was reduced by 50% in grey-headed albatross (the species least dependent on krill), by 90% in black-browed albatross and gentoo penguin (only 3 to 4% of eggs producing fledged chicks) but by only 10% in macaroni penguin, presumably reflecting its ability to switch to small prey unprofitable for the other species. However, all species (except for black-browed albatross), particularly macaroni penguin, produced fledglings significantly lighter than usual, probably affecting their subsequent survival. Some effects on adult survival could also be inferred. Our results show a coherent, though complex, pattern of within and between species similarities and differences. These mainly reflect the degree of dependence on krill, the feasibility of taking alternative prey and constraints on trip duration and/or meal size imposed by foraging adaptations (especially relating to travel speeds and diving abilities, whereby flightless divers and pelagic foragers differ markedly). The generality of these principles are explored through comparison with other studies, particularly of Shetland seabirds.

370 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a demographic study of the Crozet population indicates that the earlier decline was mainly the result of increased adult mortality and secondarily of low recruitment, and that decreased fishing effort and a concentration outside the central Indian Ocean by the Japanese fishery during recent years has probably resulted in the slow recovery of these albatross populations as a result of improved adult survival and recruitment.

358 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: In this article, the reproductive performance over the last decade of Black-Browed, Grey-Headed and Wandering Albatrosses, Gentoo and Macaroni Penguins and Antarctic Fur Seals, at Bird Island, South Georgia and for Adelie and Chinstrap Penguins at Signy island, South Orkney Islands, are summarized and reviewed.
Abstract: Aspects of the reproductive performance over the last decade of Black-Browed, Grey-Headed and Wandering Albatrosses, Gentoo and Macaroni Penguins and Antarctic Fur Seals, at Bird Island, South Georgia and for Adelie and Chinstrap Penguins at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, are summarized and reviewed. Breeding success of the Wandering Albatross, which breeds in winter and eats fish and squid, has remained constant, while population size has declined gradually but significantly. The other species at South Georgia, which breed in summer and feed extensively on krill, have shown major fluctuations in some or all of: breeding population size, breeding success, foraging trip duration and offspring growth rate. 1977–78 and 1983–84 were summers of particularly poor reproductive performance by almost all species; circumstantial evidence relating this to reduced availability of krill is discussed. The fluctuations in reproductive performance of the krill-eating, summer-breeding penguins at Signy Island are not synchronized with those at South Georgia; they correlate best (especially for Chinstraps, which suffered badly in 1980–81 and 1982–83) with the date of ice break-out in late spring. Numerous parameters of albatross, penguin and fur seal biology are reviewed in terms of their sensitivity and suitability for detecting changes in the marine environment.

352 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: The crangonid genus Parapontocaris Alcock, 1901, is reestablished for the more elongate species that nave customarily been assigned to Pontocaris Bate, 1888, and Philocheras Stebbing, 1900, is treated as a genus distinct from Pontophilus Leach, 1817.
Abstract: Chace, Fenner A., Jr. The Caridean Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) of the Albatross Philippine Expedition, 1907-1910, Part 2: Families Glyphocrangonidae and Crangonidae. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 397, 63 pages, 24 figures, 1984.—A provisional key to the 38 known species of Glyphocrangon is offered and particulars are given of the 14 species recognized from the Philippines and Indonesia, including two new species: G. juxtaculeata from the Banda Sea, Indonesia, and, possibly, the Sulu Sea, Philippines, and G. stenolepis from the South China Sea southeast of Hong Kong and southern Tablas Strait off northwestern Panay, Philippines. The crangonid genus Parapontocaris Alcock, 1901, is reestablished for the more elongate species that nave customarily been assigned to Pontocaris Bate, 1888, and Philocheras Stebbing, 1900, is treated as a genus distinct from Pontophilus Leach, 1817. Keys are included to (1) the six crangonid genera known from the Philippines and Indonesia; (2) the six species of Parapontocaris, including two new Philippine species (P. aspera and P. levigata); (3) the six Philippine-Indonesian species of Philocheras; (4) the seven species of Pontocaris; (5) trie 11 species of Pontophilus, including one new species (P. demani from the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia); (6) the four species of Prionocrangon; and (7) the five species ofSabinea. OFFICIAL PUBLICATION DATE is handstamped in a limited number of initial copies and is recorded in the Institution's annual report, Smithsonian Year. SERIES COVER DESIGN: The coral Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus). Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data (revised for volume 2) Chace, Fenner Albert. The caridean shrimps (Crustacea-Decapoda) of the Albatross Philippine Expedition, 1907-1910. (Smithsonian contributions to zoology ; no. 381 ) Includes bibliographies. Supt. of Docs, no.: SI 1.27:397 3*81. etc. "" " " ~~ ~ ~—ology QL1.S54 no. 381 [QL444.M33] 595.3'843 83-600061

347 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202328
202248
202140
202021
201923
201833