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About: Alcohol is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 22392 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 295473 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The use of 3A or 4A molecular sieves (zeolites) substantially increases the scope of the titanium(IV)-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of primary allylic alcohols. Whereas without molecular sieves epoxidations employing only 5 to 10 mol % Ti(O-i-Pr)/sub 4/ generally lead to low conversion or low enantioselectivity, in the presence of molecular sieves such reactions generally lead to high conversion (>95%) and high enantioselectivity (90-95% ee). The epoxidations of 20 primary allylic alcohols are described. Especially noteworthy are the epoxidations of cinnamyl alcohol, 2-tetradecyl-2-propen-1-ol, allyl alcohol, and crotyl alcohol - compounds which heretofore had been considered difficult substrates for asymmetric epoxidation. In the case of allyl alcohol, the use of cumene hydroperoxide substantially increases both the reaction rate and the conversion, even in the absence of molecular sieves. In general, enantioselectivities are slightly depressed (by 1-5% ee) relative employing 50-100 mol % Ti(O-i-Pr)/sub 4/. The epoxidation of low molecular weight allylic alcohols is especially facilitated and, in conjunction with in situ derivatization, provides for the synthesis of many epoxy alcohol synthons which were previously difficult to obtain. The kinetic resolution of four secondary allylic alcohols with 10 mol % Ti(O-i-Pr)/sub 4/ is also described. The role of molecular sieves in the reaction andmore » the effects of variation in reaction stoichiometry, oxidant, and tartrate are discussed.« less

1,698 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Mar 2000-Science
TL;DR: A water-soluble palladium(II) bathophenanthroline complex is a stable recyclable catalyst for the selective aerobic oxidation of a wide range of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids in a biphasic water-alcohol system.
Abstract: Alcohol oxidations are typically performed with stoichiometric reagents that generate heavy-metal waste and are usually run in chlorinated solvents. A water-soluble palladium(II) bathophenanthroline complex is a stable recyclable catalyst for the selective aerobic oxidation of a wide range of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids in a biphasic water-alcohol system. The use of water as a solvent and air as the oxidant makes the reaction interesting from both an economic and environmental point of view.

971 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: General Oxygenation Procedure. An apparently heterogeneous mixture of an olefin (cyclohexene, 1-pentene, or styrene, 1 g), NaBH, (300 mg, 7.9 mmol), (OEP)RhnxCl (4.0 mg, 6 pmol; [Rh] = 0.6 mM), and an internal standard (p-xylene, mesitylene, or durene, appropriate amount) in dry THF (10 mL) exposed to dry air was stirred a t 20-25 \"C. The oxygenation of 1-methylcyclohexene was carried out by using the rhodium catalyst in an amount 2 or 20 times as much as that used above ([Rh] = 1.2 or 12 mM). The electronic spectra of the reaction mixture underwent no significant change even after 100 h. The formation of oxygenation products was monitored by gas chromatography. Similarly was carried out the oxygenation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene and acetylenes (1-heptyne and 3-heptyne) by using substrate (300 mg), NaBH, (300 mg), and (OEP)RhmC1 or (TPP)RhInC1 (4.0 mg) in THF (20 mL). Reaction products, after conversion if necessary to silylated derivatives, were identified by gas chromatography on the basis of coinjection with authentic samples, and their yields determined also by gas chromatography. 2-Methylcyclohexanol as a mixture of stereoisomers arising from the oxygenation of 1-methylcyclohexene was purified by preparative gas chromatography. The stereoisomer distribution was determined by 'H NMR spectroscopy by taking advantage of the characteristic signals for hydroxymethine protons a t 6 3.1 (for E isomer) and 3.75 (for 2 isomer). The following control runs were carried out by using cyclohexene as substrate: (1) without rhodium porphyrin catalyst, (2) without 02, (3) without NaBH,, and (4) with NaBH(OCHJ3 in place of NaBH,. In neither case was detected oxygenation of substrate to any significant extent. Another control run using cyclohexene oxide in place of cyclohexene under otherwise identical oxygenation conditions did not give cyclohexanol. Borane Transfer. A mixture of (0EP)Rh\"'Cl (40 mg, 0.06 mmol), NaBH4 (100 mg, 2.64 mmol), and 1-pentene (70 mg, 1.0 mmol) in T H F (2 mL) in a vessel sealed with a rubber septum was degassed by freezepumpthaw cycles and was stirred a t room temperature for 19 h. The electronic spectrum of the mixture showed A, a t 395,514, and 545 nm, indicating the formation of (OEP)RhH? Following the standard procedure for the analysis of organoboranes,28 the mixture was then subjected to gas chromatography at 170 OC on a column of silicone SE-30 (2 m), which had been treated with Silyl-8 (Pierce Chemical Co.) to mask protic sites with trimethylsilyl groups. The product was readily identified as tripentylborane on the basis of coinjection with the authentic sample prepared by hydroboration of olefin with diborane under standard conditions. The mixture was exposed to air, stirred for 20 min, and then analyzed by gas chromatography to show the formation of 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol (94:6, in a total yield of 45% based on mol of Rh complex used). Oxidation of Alkylborane. A T H F solution of (E)-bis(2methy1cyclohexyl)borane\" was prepared by the hydroboration of 1-methylcyclohexene (96 mg, 1.0 mmol) with borane-THF (1 M) (0.5 mL, 0.5 mmol) in THF (1 mL) under nitrogen. To this was added 1 N aqueous NaOH (0.5 mL), and the mixture was stirred under air atmosphere for 20 h. Gas chromatographic analysis using silicone DCQF-1 showed the formation of 2methylcyclohexanol with the stereoisomer ratio of E / Z = 7624. Another control run for the oxidation of alkylborane with O2 was carried out in the presence of NaBH, (38 mg, 1.0 mmol) instead of aqueous NaOH under otherwise identical conditions and gave the isomer ratio of E / Z = 81:19. A solution of (E)-bis(2-methylcyclohexyl)borane in THF (0.21 mL) was prepared as above starting from the olefin (15.4 mg, 0.16 mmol). This solution was added to (OEP)RhH15 (100 mg, 0.16 mmol) under nitrogen. The mixture was then allowed to contact with a gentle stream of THF-saturated air for 20 h. Gas chromatography coupled with 'H NMR analysis indicated almost exclusive formation of (E)-2-methylcyclohexanol.

710 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: When n-valeric acid was treated with allyl diethyl phosphite and diethyl azodicarboxylate, allyl valeriate and diethyl N-(diethyl)phosphoryl hydrazodicarboxylate were obtained in good yields. Similarly ethyl benzoate was obtained in a nearly quantitative yield by the reaction of benzoic acid with triethyl phosphite and diethyl azodicarboxylate. The reaction of carboxylic acid with triphenyl phosphine and diethyl azodicarboxylate in the presence of an alcohol resulted in the formation of the corresponding esters of the carboxylic acid, triphenyl phosphine oxide, and diethyl hydrazodicarboxylate. The mechanisms of these reactions are also discussed.

657 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Bryce V. Plapp

16 papers, 386 citations

Charles S. Lieber

16 papers, 2.3K citations

Victor J. Johnston

12 papers, 117 citations

Adam Orosco

11 papers, 110 citations

R. Jay Warner

10 papers, 85 citations