About: Aldehyde is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 29031 publications have been published within this topic receiving 479216 citations. The topic is also known as: aldehyde.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A reaction in which primary amines are directly acylated by equimolar amounts of alcohols to produce amides and molecular hydrogen in high yields and high turnover numbers is reported.
Abstract: Given the widespread importance of amides in biochemical and chemical systems, an efficient synthesis that avoids wasteful use of stoichiometric coupling reagents or corrosive acidic and basic media is highly desirable. We report a reaction in which primary amines are directly acylated by equimolar amounts of alcohols to produce amides and molecular hydrogen (the only products) in high yields and high turnover numbers. This reaction is catalyzed by a ruthenium complex based on a dearomatized PNN-type ligand [where PNN is 2-(di-tert-butylphosphinomethyl)-6-(diethylaminomethyl)pyridine], and no base or acid promoters are required. Use of primary diamines in the reaction leads to bis-amides, whereas with a mixed primary-secondary amine substrate, chemoselective acylation of the primary amine group takes place. The proposed mechanism involves dehydrogenation of hemiaminal intermediates formed by the reaction of an aldehyde intermediate with the amine.
TL;DR: In this paper, an enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes using diastereomeric (homochiral and heterochiral) dinuclear complexes formed from the dialkylzinc and the DAIB auxiliary is described.
Abstract: Nucleophilic addition of organometallic reagents to carbonyl substrates constitutes one of the most fundamental operations in organic synthesis. Modification of the organometallic compounds by chiral, nonracemic auxiliaries offers a general opportunity to create optically active alcohols, and the catalytic version in particular provides maximum synthetic efficiency. The use of organozinc chemistry, unlike conventional organolithium or -magnesium chemistry, has realized an ideal catalytic enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes leading to a diverse array of secondary alcohols of high optical purity. A combination of dialkylzinc compounds and certain sterically constrained β-dialkylamino alcohols, such as (–)-3-exo-dimethylaminoiso- borneol [(–)-DAIB], as chiral inducers affords the best result (up to 99% ee). The alkyl transfer reaction occurs via a dinuclear Zn complex containing a chiral amino alkoxide, an aldehyde ligand, and three alkyl groups. The chiral multiplication method exhibits enormous chiral amplification: a high level of enantioselection (up to 98%) is attainable by use of DAIB in 14% ee. This unusual nonlinear effect is a result of a marked difference in chemical properties of the diastereomeric (homochiral and heterochiral) dinuclear complexes formed from the dialkylzinc and the DAIB auxiliary. This phenomenon may be the beginning of a new generation of enantioselective organic reactions.
TL;DR: Water retention values of cotton linter can be increased from 60% to about 280% through the introduction of hydrophilic carboxylate groups and morphological changes from fibrous forms to short fragments by the TEMPO-mediated oxidation.
Abstract: Cellulose cotton linter was oxidized with sodium hypochlorite with catalytic amounts of sodium bromide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) under various conditions. After this TEMPO-mediated oxidation, water-insoluble fractions were collected and characterized in terms of carboxylate and aldehyde contents, crystallinities and crystal sizes, degrees of polymerization, morphology, and water retention values. Carboxylate and aldehyde groups were introduced into the water-insoluble fractions up to about 0.7 and 0.3 mmol/g, respectively, by the oxidation, where recovery of the water-insoluble fractions were generally higher than 80%. Crystallinities and crystal sizes of cellulose I were nearly unchanged during the oxidation, and thus, carboxylate and aldehyde groups were introduced selectively on crystal surfaces and in disordered regions of the water-insoluble fractions. Water retention values of cotton linter can be increased from 60% to about 280% through the introduction of hydrophilic carboxylate groups and morphological changes from fibrous forms to short fragments by the TEMPO-mediated oxidation.
TL;DR: In this paper, a mixture of cyclohexene, 1-pentene, and 1-cyclohexylborane was used for the identification of tripentylboranes.
Abstract: General Oxygenation Procedure. An apparently heterogeneous mixture of an olefin (cyclohexene, 1-pentene, or styrene, 1 g), NaBH, (300 mg, 7.9 mmol), (OEP)RhnxCl (4.0 mg, 6 pmol; [Rh] = 0.6 mM), and an internal standard (p-xylene, mesitylene, or durene, appropriate amount) in dry THF (10 mL) exposed to dry air was stirred a t 20-25 \"C. The oxygenation of 1-methylcyclohexene was carried out by using the rhodium catalyst in an amount 2 or 20 times as much as that used above ([Rh] = 1.2 or 12 mM). The electronic spectra of the reaction mixture underwent no significant change even after 100 h. The formation of oxygenation products was monitored by gas chromatography. Similarly was carried out the oxygenation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene and acetylenes (1-heptyne and 3-heptyne) by using substrate (300 mg), NaBH, (300 mg), and (OEP)RhmC1 or (TPP)RhInC1 (4.0 mg) in THF (20 mL). Reaction products, after conversion if necessary to silylated derivatives, were identified by gas chromatography on the basis of coinjection with authentic samples, and their yields determined also by gas chromatography. 2-Methylcyclohexanol as a mixture of stereoisomers arising from the oxygenation of 1-methylcyclohexene was purified by preparative gas chromatography. The stereoisomer distribution was determined by 'H NMR spectroscopy by taking advantage of the characteristic signals for hydroxymethine protons a t 6 3.1 (for E isomer) and 3.75 (for 2 isomer). The following control runs were carried out by using cyclohexene as substrate: (1) without rhodium porphyrin catalyst, (2) without 02, (3) without NaBH,, and (4) with NaBH(OCHJ3 in place of NaBH,. In neither case was detected oxygenation of substrate to any significant extent. Another control run using cyclohexene oxide in place of cyclohexene under otherwise identical oxygenation conditions did not give cyclohexanol. Borane Transfer. A mixture of (0EP)Rh\"'Cl (40 mg, 0.06 mmol), NaBH4 (100 mg, 2.64 mmol), and 1-pentene (70 mg, 1.0 mmol) in T H F (2 mL) in a vessel sealed with a rubber septum was degassed by freezepumpthaw cycles and was stirred a t room temperature for 19 h. The electronic spectrum of the mixture showed A, a t 395,514, and 545 nm, indicating the formation of (OEP)RhH? Following the standard procedure for the analysis of organoboranes,28 the mixture was then subjected to gas chromatography at 170 OC on a column of silicone SE-30 (2 m), which had been treated with Silyl-8 (Pierce Chemical Co.) to mask protic sites with trimethylsilyl groups. The product was readily identified as tripentylborane on the basis of coinjection with the authentic sample prepared by hydroboration of olefin with diborane under standard conditions. The mixture was exposed to air, stirred for 20 min, and then analyzed by gas chromatography to show the formation of 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol (94:6, in a total yield of 45% based on mol of Rh complex used). Oxidation of Alkylborane. A T H F solution of (E)-bis(2methy1cyclohexyl)borane\" was prepared by the hydroboration of 1-methylcyclohexene (96 mg, 1.0 mmol) with borane-THF (1 M) (0.5 mL, 0.5 mmol) in THF (1 mL) under nitrogen. To this was added 1 N aqueous NaOH (0.5 mL), and the mixture was stirred under air atmosphere for 20 h. Gas chromatographic analysis using silicone DCQF-1 showed the formation of 2methylcyclohexanol with the stereoisomer ratio of E / Z = 7624. Another control run for the oxidation of alkylborane with O2 was carried out in the presence of NaBH, (38 mg, 1.0 mmol) instead of aqueous NaOH under otherwise identical conditions and gave the isomer ratio of E / Z = 81:19. A solution of (E)-bis(2-methylcyclohexyl)borane in THF (0.21 mL) was prepared as above starting from the olefin (15.4 mg, 0.16 mmol). This solution was added to (OEP)RhH15 (100 mg, 0.16 mmol) under nitrogen. The mixture was then allowed to contact with a gentle stream of THF-saturated air for 20 h. Gas chromatography coupled with 'H NMR analysis indicated almost exclusive formation of (E)-2-methylcyclohexanol.
TL;DR: Mukaiyama et al. as mentioned in this paper showed that with the addition of titanium tetrachloride, silyl enol ethers can react with either aldehydes or ketones forming crossed aldol products.
Abstract: Synopsis: With the addition of titanium tetrachloride, silyl enol ethers can react with either aldehydes or ketones forming crossed aldol products. The carbonyl group of the aldehyde or ketone is activated by titanium tetrachloride, allowing for nucleophilic attack by a silyl enol ether at the carbonyl carbon (a titanium chelate forms as an intermediate). This addition reaction is dependent upon the metal salt, solvent, and temperature used. Critique: The fact that various reaction conditions were studied to find optimal reaction conditions that gave the highest yield of cross-aldol addition products strengthened the findings in this paper. Mukaiyama and coworkers concluded first that titanium chloride was best for this reaction compared to boron trifluoride etherate and stannic chloride. Secondly, it was observed that methylene chloride gave cross-aldol products in good yield while no reaction was observed in both diethyl ether and THF. Finally, reaction with aldehydes is favored at -78 o C while ketone reaction is favored at room temperature. It was also interesting to see that the use of unsymmetric ketones allows for regiospecific addition reactions at the olefinic position on the silyl enol ether.
Trending Questions (10)