About: Aldehyde dehydrogenase is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3365 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 107683 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Using an unbiased proteomic search, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is identified as an enzyme whose activation correlates with reduced ischemic heart damage in rodent models and pharmacologic enhancement of ALDH2 activity may be useful for patients with wild-type or mutant AL DH2 who are subjected to cardiac ischemia.
Abstract: There is substantial interest in the development of drugs that limit the extent of ischemia-induced cardiac damage caused by myocardial infarction or by certain surgical procedures. Here, using an unbiased proteomic search, we identified mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) as an enzyme whose activation correlates with reduced ischemic heart damage in rodent models. A high-throughput screen yielded a small-molecule activator of ALDH2 (Alda-1) that, when administered to rats before an ischemic event, reduced infarct size by 60%, most likely through its inhibitory effect on the formation of cytotoxic aldehydes. In vitro, Alda-1 was a particularly effective activator of ALDH2*2, an inactive mutant form of the enzyme that is found in 40% of East Asian populations. Thus, pharmacologic enhancement of ALDH2 activity may be useful for patients with wild-type or mutant ALDH2 who are subjected to cardiac ischemia, such as during coronary bypass surgery.
TL;DR: The genotypes of the ADH2, ADH3, and ALDH2 loci of alcoholic and nonalcoholic Chinese men living in Taiwan are determined using leukocyte DNA amplified by the PCR and allele-specific oligonucleotides, suggesting that genetic variation in both ADH and AL DH, by modulating the rate of metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde, influences drinking behavior and the risk of developing alcoholism.
Abstract: The liver enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which are responsible for the oxidative metabolism of ethanol, are polymorphic in humans. An allele encoding an inactive form of the mitochondrial ALDH2 is known to reduce the likelihood of alcoholism in Japanese. We hypothesized that the polymorphisms of both ALDH and ADH modify the predisposition to development of alcoholism. Therefore, we determined the genotypes of the ADH2, ADH3, and ALDH2 loci of alcoholic and nonalcoholic Chinese men living in Taiwan, using leukocyte DNA amplified by the PCR and allele-specific oligonucleotides. The alcoholics had significantly lower frequencies of the ADH2*2, ADH3*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles than did the nonalcoholics, suggesting that genetic variation in both ADH and ALDH, by modulating the rate of metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde, influences drinking behavior and the risk of developing alcoholism.
TL;DR: What is currently known about each member of the human ALDH superfamily, composed of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze aldehyde oxidation, is presented including the pathophysiological significance of these enzymes.
Abstract: Background: Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules. While several non-P450 enzyme systems participate in their metabolism, one of the most important is the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily, composed of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze aldehyde oxidation. Objective: This article presents a review of what is currently known about each member of the human ALDH superfamily including the pathophysiological significance of these enzymes. Methods: Relevant literature involving all members of the human ALDH family was extensively reviewed, with the primary focus on recent and novel findings. Conclusion: To date, 19 ALDH genes have been identified in the human genome and mutations in these genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases, including Sjogren-Larsson syndrome, type II hyperprolinemia, γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria and pyridoxine-dependent seizures. ALDH enzymes also play important roles in embryogenesis and development, neurotransmissi...
01 Jul 2000-FEBS Journal
TL;DR: Compilation of the known retinoid dehydrogenases indicates the existence of 17 nonorthologous forms: five ADHs, eight SDRs, and four ALDHs,Eight of which are conserved in both mouse and human, suggesting a function in androgen metabolism as well as retinoids metabolism.
Abstract: Vitamin A (retinol) and provitamin A (β-carotene) are metabolized to specific retinoid derivatives which function in either vision or growth and development. The metabolite 11-cis-retinal functions in light absorption for vision in chordate and nonchordate animals, whereas all-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis-retinoic acid function as ligands for nuclear retinoic acid receptors that regulate gene expression only in chordate animals. Investigation of retinoid metabolic pathways has resulted in the identification of numerous retinoid dehydrogenases that potentially contribute to metabolism of various retinoid isomers to produce active forms. These enzymes fall into three major families. Dehydrogenases catalyzing the reversible oxidation/reduction of retinol and retinal are members of either the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzyme families, whereas dehydrogenases catalyzing the oxidation of retinal to retinoic acid are members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family. Compilation of the known retinoid dehydrogenases indicates the existence of 17 nonorthologous forms: five ADHs, eight SDRs, and four ALDHs, eight of which are conserved in both mouse and human. Genetic studies indicate in vivo roles for two ADHs (ADH1 and ADH4), one SDR (RDH5), and two ALDHs (ALDH1 and RALDH2) all of which are conserved between humans and rodents. For several SDRs (RoDH1, RoDH4, CRAD1, and CRAD2) androgens rather than retinoids are the predominant substrates suggesting a function in androgen metabolism as well as retinoid metabolism.
01 Jan 2007-Alcohol Research & Health
TL;DR: It is becoming clear that noncoding variants in both ADH and ALDH genes also may influence alcohol metabolism and, consequently, alcoholism risk; the specific nature and effects of these variants still need further study.
Abstract: The primary enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Both enzymes occur in several forms that are encoded by different genes; moreover, there are variants (i.e., alleles) of some of these genes that encode enzymes with different characteristics and which have different ethnic distributions. Which ADH or ALDH alleles a person carries influence his or her level of alcohol consumption and risk of alcoholism. Researchers to date primarily have studied coding variants in the ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 genes that are associated with altered kinetic properties of the resulting enzymes. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C alleles encode particularly active ADH enzymes, resulting in more rapid conversion of alcohol (i.e., ethanol) to acetaldehyde; these alleles have a protective effect on the risk of alcoholism. A variant of the ALDH2 gene encodes an essentially inactive ALDH enzyme, resulting in acetaldehyde accumulation and a protective effect. It is becoming clear that noncoding variants in both ADH and ALDH genes also may influence alcohol metabolism and, consequently, alcoholism risk; the specific nature and effects of these variants still need further study.
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