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Allelopathy

About: Allelopathy is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4924 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 98572 citation(s).


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TL;DR: Recent research onRoot exudation and the role of allelochemicals in the rhizosphere is outlined by studying the case of three plants that have been shown to produce allelopathic root exudates: black walnut, wheat and sorghum.
Abstract: Plant roots serve a multitude of functions in the plant including anchorage, provision of nutrients and water, and production of exudates with growth regulatory properties. The root–soil interface, or rhizosphere, is the site of greatest activity within the soil matrix. Within this matrix, roots affect soil structure, aeration and biological activity as they are the major source of organic inputs into the rhizosphere, and are also responsible for depletion of large supplies of inorganic compounds. Roots are very complicated morphologically and physiologically, and their metabolites are often released in large quantities into the soil rhizosphere from living root hairs or fibrous root systems. Root exudates containing root-specific metabolites have critical ecological impacts on soil macro and microbiota as well as on the whole plant itself. Through the exudation of a wide variety of compounds, roots impact the soil microbial community in their immediate vicinity, influence resistance to pests, support beneficial symbioses, alter the chemical and physical properties of the soil, and inhibit the growth of competing plant species. In this review, we outline recent research on root exudation and the role of allelochemicals in the rhizosphere by studying the case of three plants that have been shown to produce allelopathic root exudates: black walnut, wheat and sorghum

1,090 citations

01 Jan 1984

765 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Field evidence and laboratory studies indicate that allelopathy occurs in all aquatic habitats (marine and freshwater), and that all primary producing organisms (cyanobacteria, micro- and macroalgae as well as angiosperms) are capable of producing and releasing allelopathically active compounds.
Abstract: Allelopathy in aquatic environments may provide a competitive advantage to angiosperms, algae, or cyanobacteria in their interaction with other primary producers. Allelopathy can influence the competition between different photoautotrophs for resources and change the succession of species, for example, in phytoplankton communities. Field evidence and laboratory studies indicate that allelopathy occurs in all aquatic habitats (marine and freshwater), and that all primary producing organisms (cyanobacteria, micro- and macroalgae as well as angiosperms) are capable of producing and releasing allelopathically active compounds. Although allelopathy also includes positive (stimulating) interactions, the majority of studies describe the inhibitory activity of allelopathically active compounds. Different mechanisms operate depending on whether allelopathy takes place in the open water (pelagic zone) or is substrate associated (benthic habitats). Allelopathical interactions are especially common in fully aquatic s...

539 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that non-resource mechanisms should be returned to the discussion table as a potential mechanism for explaining the remarkable success of some invasive species.
Abstract: The primary hypothesis for the astonishing success of many exotics as community invaders relative to their importance in their native communities is that they have escaped the natural enemies that control their population growth – the `natural enemies hypothesis'. However, the frequent failure of introduced biocontrols, weak consumer effects on the growth and reproduction of some invaders, and the lack of consistent strong top-down regulation in many natural ecological systems indicate that other mechanisms must be involved in the success of some exotic plants. One mechanism may be the release by the invader of chemical compounds that have harmful effects on the members of the recipient plant community (i.e., allelopathy). Here, we provide an abbreviated compilation of evidence for allelopathy in general, present a detailed case study for Centaurea diffusa, an invasive Eurasian forb in western North America, and review general evidence for allelopathic effects of invasive plants in native communities. The primary rationale for considering allelopathy as a mechanism for the success of invaders is based on two premises. First, invaders often establish virtual monocultures where diverse communities once flourished, a phenomenon unusual in natural communities. Second, allelopathy may be more important in recipient than in origin communities because the former are more likely to be naive to the chemicals possessed by newly arrived species. Indeed, results from experiments on C. diffusa suggest that this invader produces chemicals that long-term and familiar Eurasian neighbors have adapted to, but that C. diffusa's new North American neighbors have not. A large number of early studies demonstrated strong potential allelopathic effects of exotic invasive plants; however, most of this work rests on controversial methodology. Nevertheless, during the last 15 years, methodological approaches have improved. Allelopathic effects have been tested on native species, allelochemicals have been tested in varying resource conditions, models have been used to estimate comparisons of resource and allelopathic effects, and experimental techniques have been used to ameliorate chemical effects. We do not recommend allelopathy as a `unifying theory' for plant interactions, nor do we espouse the view that allelopathy is the dominant way that plants interact, but we argue that non-resource mechanisms should be returned to the discussion table as a potential mechanism for explaining the remarkable success of some invasive species. Ecologists should consider the possibility that resource and non-resource mechanisms may work simultaneously, but vary in their relative importance depending on the ecological context in which they are studied. One such context might be exotic plant invasion.

519 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ability to understand the physiological basis for allelopathy in a crop plant may allow the weed scientist or ecologist to work closely with molecular biologists or traditional plant breeders to selectively enhance the traits responsible for weed suppression.
Abstract: Biorational alternatives are gaining increased attention for weed control because of concerns related to pesticide usage and dwindling numbers of labeled products, particularly for minor-use crops. Allelopathy offers potential for biorational weed control through the production and release of allelochemics from leaves, flowers, seeds, stems, and roots of living or decomposing plant materials. Under appropriate conditions, allelochemics may be released in quantities suppressive to developing weed seedlings. Allelochemics often exhibit selectivity, similar to synthetic herbicides. Two main approaches have been investigated for allelopathic weed suppression. One is use of living rotational crops or mulches that interfere with the growth of surrounding weeds [e.g., tall red fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.; creeping red fescue, F. rubra L. subsp. commutata; asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. var. altilis); sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; alfalfa, Medicago saliva L.; black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch; and oat, Avena saliva L.]. Attempts to select germplasm with enhanced suppressive ability have been limited. The second is use of cover crop residues or living mulches to suppress weed growth for variable lengths of time (e.g., winter rye, Secale cereale L.; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L.; and sorghum). Cover crop residues may selectively provide weed suppression through their physical presence on the soil surface and by release of allelochemics or microbially altered allelochemics. The ability to understand the physiological basis for allelopathy in a crop plant may allow the weed scientist or ecologist to work closely with molecular biologists or traditional plant breeders to selectively enhance the traits responsible for weed suppression.

490 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20223
2021166
2020198
2019235
2018224
2017192