About: Allicin is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1520 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 40856 citation(s). The topic is also known as: thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester.
01 Feb 1999-Microbes and Infection
TL;DR: The main antimicrobial effect of allicin is due to its chemical reaction with thiol groups of various enzymes, e.g. alcohol dehydrogenase, thioredoxin reductase, and RNA polymerase, which can affect essential metabolism of cysteine proteinase activity involved in the virulence of E. histolytica.
Abstract: Allicin, one of the active principles of freshly crushed garlic homogenates, has a variety of antimicrobial activities. Allicin in its pure form was found to exhibit i) antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant enterotoxicogenic strains of Escherichia coli; ii) antifungal activity, particularly against Candida albicans; iii) antiparasitic activity, including some major human intestinal protozoan parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia; and iv) antiviral activity. The main antimicrobial effect of allicin is due to its chemical reaction with thiol groups of various enzymes, e.g. alcohol dehydrogenase, thioredoxin reductase, and RNA polymerase, which can affect essential metabolism of cysteine proteinase activity involved in the virulence of E. histolytica.
Eric Block1•Institutions (1)
01 Sep 1992-Angewandte Chemie
Abstract: A Cook's tour is presented of the organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium, as represented, inter alia, by garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.). We report on the biosynthesis of the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine S-oxides (aroma and flavor precursors) in intact plants and on how upon cutting or crushing the plants these precursors are cleaved by allinase enzymes, giving sulfenic acids—highly reactive organosulfur intermediates. In garlic, 2-propenesulfenic acid gives allicin, a thiosulfinate with antibiotic properties, while in onion 1-propenesulfenic acid rearranges to the sulfine (Z)-propanethial S-oxide, the lachrymatory factor (LF) of onion. Highlights of onion chemistry include the assignment of stereochemistry to the LF and determination of the mechanism of its dimerization; the isolation, characterization, and synthesis of thiosulfinates which most closely duplicate the taste and aroma of the freshly cut bulb, and additional unusual compounds such as zwiebelanes (dithiabicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes), a bis-sulfine (a 1,4-butanedithial S,S′-dioxide), antithrombotic and antiasthmatic cepaenes (α-sulfinyl disulfides), and vic-disulfoxides. Especially noteworthy in the chemistry of garlic are the discovery of ajoene, a potent antithrombotic agent from garlic, and the elucidation of the unique sequence of reactions that occur when diallyl disulfide, which is present in steam-distilled garlic oil, is heated. Reaction mechanisms under discussion include [3, 3]- and [2, 3]-sigma-tropic rearrangements involving sulfur (e.g. sulfoxide-accelerated thio- and dithio-Claisen rearrangements) and cycloadditions involving thiocarbonyl systems. In view of the culinary importance of alliaceous plants as well as the unique history of their use in folk medicine, this survey concludes with a discussion of the physiological activity of the components of these plants: cancer prevention, antimicrobial activity, insect and animal attractive/repulsive activity, olfactory–gustatory–lachrymatory properties, effect on lipid metabolism, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity and properties associated with ajoene. And naturally, comments about onion and garlic induced bad breath and heartburn may not be overlooked.
01 Mar 2001-Journal of Nutrition
TL;DR: The health benefits of garlic likely arise from a wide variety of components, possibly working synergistically, and ample research suggests that several bioavailable components likely contribute to the observed beneficial effects.
Abstract: The health benefits of garlic likely arise from a wide variety of components, possibly working synergistically. The complex chemistry of garlic makes it plausible that variations in processing can yield quite different preparations. Highly unstable thiosulfinates, such as allicin, disappear during processing and are quickly transformed into a variety of organosulfur components. The efficacy and safety of these preparations in preparing dietary supplements based on garlic are also contingent on the processing methods employed. Although there are many garlic supplements commercially available, they fall into one of four categories, i.e., dehydrated garlic powder, garlic oil, garlic oil macerate and aged garlic extract (AGE). Garlic and garlic supplements are consumed in many cultures for their hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and procirculatory effects. In addition to these proclaimed beneficial effects, some garlic preparations also appear to possess hepatoprotective, immune-enhancing, anticancer and chemopreventive activities. Some preparations appear to be antioxidative, whereas others may stimulate oxidation. These additional biological effects attributed to AGE may be due to compounds, such as S-allylcysteine, S-allylmercaptocysteine, N(alpha)-fructosyl arginine and others, formed during the extraction process. Although not all of the active ingredients are known, ample research suggests that several bioavailable components likely contribute to the observed beneficial effects of garlic.
TL;DR: It is shown that allicin and DADS excite an allyl isothiocyanate-sensitive subpopulation of sensory neurons and induce vasodilation by activating capsaicin-sensitive perivascular sensory nerve endings, suggesting that garlic excites sensory neurons primarily through activation of TRPA1.
Abstract: Garlic belongs to the Allium family of plants that produce organosulfur compounds, such as allicin and diallyl disulfide (DADS), which account for their pungency and spicy aroma. Many health benefits have been ascribed to Allium extracts, including hypotensive and vasorelaxant activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Intriguingly, allicin and DADS share structural similarities with allyl isothiocyanate, the pungent ingredient in wasabi and other mustard plants that induces pain and inflammation by activating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel on primary sensory neurons of the pain pathway. Here we show that allicin and DADS excite an allyl isothiocyanate-sensitive subpopulation of sensory neurons and induce vasodilation by activating capsaicin-sensitive perivascular sensory nerve endings. Moreover, allicin and DADS activate the cloned TRPA1 channel when expressed in heterologous systems. These and other results suggest that garlic excites sensory neurons primarily through activation of TRPA1. Thus different plant genera, including Allium and Brassica, have developed evolutionary convergent strategies that target TRPA1 channels on sensory nerve endings to achieve chemical deterrence.