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Alloxan

About: Alloxan is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6194 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 111216 citation(s). The topic is also known as: NSC 7169 & 5,6-dioxouracil.

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Journal Article
Tomasz Szkudelski1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The cytotoxic action of both these diabetogenic agents is mediated by reactive oxygen species, however, the source of their generation is different in the case of alloxan and streptozotocin.

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Abstract: Alloxan and streptozotocin are widely used to induce experimental diabetes in animals. The mechanism of their action in B cells of the pancreas has been intensively investigated and now is quite well understood. The cytotoxic action of both these diabetogenic agents is mediated by reactive oxygen species, however, the source of their generation is different in the case of alloxan and streptozotocin. Alloxan and the product of its reduction, dialuric acid, establish a redox cycle with the formation of superoxide radicals. These radicals undergo dismutation to hydrogen peroxide. Thereafter highly reactive hydroxyl radicals are formed by the Fenton reaction. The action of reactive oxygen species with a simultaneous massive increase in cytosolic calcium concentration causes rapid destruction of B cells. Streptozotocin enters the B cell via a glucose transporter (GLUT2) and causes alkylation of DNA. DNA damage induces activation of poly ADP-ribosylation, a process that is more important for the diabetogenicity of streptozotocin than DNA damage itself. Poly ADP-ribosylation leads to depletion of cellular NAD+ and ATP. Enhanced ATP dephosphorylation after streptozotocin treatment supplies a substrate for xanthine oxidase resulting in the formation of superoxide radicals. Consequently, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are also generated. Furthermore, streptozotocin liberates toxic amounts of nitric oxide that inhibits aconitase activity and participates in DNA damage. As a result of the streptozotocin action, B cells undergo the destruction by necrosis.

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2,742 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Sigurd Lenzen1Institutions (1)
01 Feb 2008-Diabetologia
TL;DR: The targeting of mitochondrial DNA, thereby impairing the signalling function of beta cell mitochondrial metabolism, also explains how streptozotocin is able to inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion, causing a state of insulin-dependent ‘alloxan diabetes’.

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Abstract: Alloxan and streptozotocin are toxic glucose analogues that preferentially accumulate in pancreatic beta cells via the GLUT2 glucose transporter. In the presence of intracellular thiols, especially glutathione, alloxan generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a cyclic redox reaction with its reduction product, dialuric acid. Autoxidation of dialuric acid generates superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide and, in a final iron-catalysed reaction step, hydroxyl radicals. These hydroxyl radicals are ultimately responsible for the death of the beta cells, which have a particularly low antioxidative defence capacity, and the ensuing state of insulin-dependent 'alloxan diabetes'. As a thiol reagent, alloxan also selectively inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion through its ability to inhibit the beta cell glucose sensor glucokinase. Following its uptake into the beta cells, streptozotocin is split into its glucose and methylnitrosourea moiety. Owing to its alkylating properties, the latter modifies biological macromolecules, fragments DNA and destroys the beta cells, causing a state of insulin-dependent diabetes. The targeting of mitochondrial DNA, thereby impairing the signalling function of beta cell mitochondrial metabolism, also explains how streptozotocin is able to inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion.

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1,607 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Larry W. Oberley1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Not only are oxygen radicals involved in the cause of diabetes, they also appear to play a role in some of the complications seen in long-term treatment of diabetes.

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Abstract: The role of active oxygen species in diabetes is discussed in this review. Type I diabetes is caused by destruction of the pancreatic beta cells responsible for producing insulin. In humans, the diabetogenic process appears to be caused by immune destruction of the beta cells; part of this process is apparently mediated by white cell production of active oxygen species. Diabetes can be produced in animals by the drugs alloxan and streptozotocin; the mechanism of action of these two drugs is different, but both result in the production of active oxygen species. Scavengers of oxygen radicals are effective in preventing diabetes in these animal models. Not only are oxygen radicals involved in the cause of diabetes, they also appear to play a role in some of the complications seen in long-term treatment of diabetes. Changes in antioxidants in the diabetic state and their consequences are discussed.

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1,102 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Alain Junod1, A.E. Lambert1, Lelio Orci1, R. Pictet1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: While the B-cytotoxic effects of streptozotocin resemble those of alloxan, their specificity is very much greater, as demonstrated by the wide margin between diabetogenic dose and general toxicity.

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Abstract: SummaryStreptozotocin is a highly effective cytotoxic agent for pancreatic B-cells. After intravenous administration of 65 mg streptozotocin per kg, damage to B-cells is apparent as early as one hour after intravenous administration of the drug. Frank necrosis associated with phagocytosis is best seen after 7 hours, when pancreatic insulin release and hypoglycemia are also noted. By 24 hours, pancreatic insulin content is reduced to 5% of normal or less. While the B-cytotoxic effects of streptozotocin resemble those of alloxan, their specificity is very much greater, as demonstrated by the wide margin between diabetogenic dose and general toxicity.

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557 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pancreatic islets were found to belong to tissues with relatively little activity of the protective enzymes, and the deviation from other tissues in this respect is probably not large enough to explain the especially great susceptibility of islet cells to alloxan.

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Abstract: Exogenous superoxide dismutase, catalase and scavengers of the hydroxyl radical protect pancreatic-islet cells against the toxic actions of alloxan in vitro [Grankvist et al. (1979) Biochem. J. 182, 17--25]. To test whether the extraordinary sensitivity of islet cells to alloxan is due to a deficiency of endogenous enzymes protecting against oxygen-reduction products, we assayed CuZn-superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in mouse islets and other tissues. To correct for any blood contamination, haemoglobin was also measured in the tissue samples. Pancreatic islets were found to belong to tissues with relatively little activity of the protective enzymes. However, the deviation from other tissues in this respect is probably not large enough to explain the especially great susceptibility of islet cells to alloxan.

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479 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
2021108
2020192
2019188
2018209
2017242

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Najma Zaheer Baquer

15 papers, 889 citations

Maria Alice Rostom de Mello

12 papers, 177 citations

Lennart Boquist

9 papers, 129 citations

Hassan Ahmadvand

9 papers, 123 citations

Leelavinothan Pari

9 papers, 1K citations