About: Alternanthera philoxeroides is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 602 publications have been published within this topic receiving 6083 citations. The topic is also known as: Alligator Weed.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The combined evidence from molecular marker analysis and common garden experiments support the plasticity hypothesis rather than the ecotype hypothesis in explaining the adaptation of alligator weed in a wide range of habitats.
Abstract: Both phenotypic plasticity and locally adapted ecotypes may contribute to the success of invasive species in a wide range of habitats. Here, we conducted common garden experiments and molecular marker analysis to test the two alternative hypotheses in invasive alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides), which colonizes both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Ninety individuals from three pairs of aquatic versus terrestrial populations across southern China were analyzed, using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker, to examine population differentiation in neutral loci. Two common gardens simulating aquatic and terrestrial habitats were set up to examine population differentiation in quantitative traits. We found no evidence of population differentiation in both neutral loci and quantitative traits. Most individuals shared the same ISSR genotype. Meanwhile, plants from different habitats showed similar reaction norms across the two common gardens. In particular, plants allocated much more biomass to the belowground roots in the terrestrial environment, where alligator weed may lose part or all of the aboveground shoots because of periodical or accidental disturbances, than those in the aquatic environment. The combined evidence from molecular marker analysis and common garden experiments support the plasticity hypothesis rather than the ecotype hypothesis in explaining the adaptation of alligator weed in a wide range of habitats.
TL;DR: Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system.
Abstract: Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) is an invasive weed that can colonize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Individuals growing in different habitats exhibit extensive phenotypic variation but little genetic differentiation in its introduced range. The mechanisms underpinning the wide range of phenotypic variation and rapid adaptation to novel and changing environments remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the epigenetic variation and its correlation with phenotypic variation in plants exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Genome-wide methylation profiling using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) revealed considerable DNA methylation polymorphisms within and between natural populations. Plants of different source populations not only underwent significant morphological changes in common garden environments, but also underwent a genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in response to different treatments. Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system. These data provide evidence of the correlation between epigenetic reprogramming and the reversible phenotypic response of alligator weed to particular environmental factors.
TL;DR: The results suggest that the invasiveness of Alternanthera may be closely related to clonal integration, and contributed little to Alternanthersa's competitive ability, but was very important for Alternanhera to explore open space.
Abstract: † Background and Aims Many notorious alien invasive plants are clonal, but little is known about some roles and aspects of clonal integration. Here, the hypothesis is tested that clonal integration affects growth, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass allocation and competitive ability of the exotic invasive weed Alternanthera philoxeroides (Amaranthaceae). † Methods The apical parts of Alternanthera were grown either with or without the lawn grass Schedonorus phoenix (tall fescue) and their stolon connections to the basal parts grown without competitors were either severed or left intact. † Key Results Competition greatly reduced the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and growth (biomass, number of ramets and leaves, total stolon length and total leaf area) of the apical Alternanthera, but not the biomass of S. phoenix. Stolon connections significantly increased Fv/Fm and growth of Alternanthera. However, such effects on growth were smaller with than without competition and stolon connections did not alter the relative neighbour effect of Alternanthera. Stolon connections increased Alternanthera’s biomass allocation to roots without competition, but decreased it with competition. † Conclusions Clonal integration contributed little to Alternanthera’s competitive ability, but was very important for Alternanthera to explore open space. The results suggest that the invasiveness of Alternanthera may be closely related to clonal integration.
TL;DR: In Australia, alligator weed is still spreading with new outbreaks on New South Wales, Australia (NSW) coastal beach areas and coastal river systems, and on inland waterbodies.
Abstract: Biological control of alligator weed Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. has been successful in limiting growth in water in areas with mild or warm winters, but not on land. Until recently, herbicides have had very limited short term and no long term effectiveness. Several herbicides that now provide better control include: glyphosate over water, and metsulfuron and dichlobenil on land and in shallow water. The latter two are limited by lack of selectivity, contamination of water, and cost. Mechanical or manual control has provided local eradication of the weed at a few locations where infestations were small. Alligator weed is still spreading with new outbreaks on New South Wales, Australia (NSW) coastal beach areas and coastal river systems, and on inland waterbodies. Its use as a cultivated vegetable by some ethnic communities has resulted in many new locations in all eastern Australia states: Queensland to Tasmania. It is predicted that it will spread throughout much of coastal and inland southern Australia. The difficulties with management of this weed indicate that every effort should be made to prevent further invasion of wetlands and, in particular, its introduction to Africa, where it is predicted that all wetlands could support destructive levels of alligator weed growth.
TL;DR: Although A. philoxeroides is widely distributed in China, the molecular data indicated its genetic diversity is extremely low, which implies that the low genetic diversity did not affect the success of its expansion in China.
Abstract: Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Grisb was introduced into China in the 1930s, and today occurs in most regions of southern China. Techniques using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were applied to analyze genetic diversity of this invasive, weedy species. The fragments amplified by both 28 RAPD primers and 23 ISSR primers showed no polymorphic bands within and among the seven populations sampled. These results might be a consequence of the short introduction history in China and the clonal propagation of this aquatic plant. Although A. philoxeroides is widely distributed in China, the molecular data indicated its genetic diversity is extremely low, which implies that the low genetic diversity did not affect the success of its expansion in China. The rapid range expansion of A. philoxeroides is most likely the result of a massive clonal propagation since its introduction.