About: Alternative splicing is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 20764 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1113366 citation(s). The topic is also known as: alternative nuclear mRNA splicing, via spliceosome & GO:0000380.
TL;DR: Overexpressed Bax accelerates apoptotic death induced by cytokine deprivation in an IL-3-dependent cell line and counters the death repressor activity of B cl-2, suggesting a model in which the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax determines survival or death following an apoptotic stimulus.
Abstract: Bcl-2 protein is able to repress a number of apoptotic death programs. To investigate the mechanism of Bcl-2's effect, we examined whether Bcl-2 interacted with other proteins. We identified an associated 21 kd protein partner, Bax, that has extensive amino acid homology with Bcl-2, focused within highly conserved domains I and II. Bax is encoded by six exons and demonstrates a complex pattern of alternative RNA splicing that predicts a 21 kd membrane (alpha) and two forms of cytosolic protein (beta and gamma). Bax homodimerizes and forms heterodimers with Bcl-2 in vivo. Overexpressed Bax accelerates apoptotic death induced by cytokine deprivation in an IL-3-dependent cell line. Overexpressed Bax also counters the death repressor activity of Bcl-2. These data suggest a model in which the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax determines survival or death following an apoptotic stimulus.
TL;DR: The efficacy of this cDNA cloning strategy was demonstrated by isolating cDNA clones of mRNA from int-2, a mouse gene that expresses four different transcripts at low abundance, the longest of which is approximately 2.9 kilobases.
Abstract: We have devised a simple and efficient cDNA cloning strategy that overcomes many of the difficulties encountered in obtaining full-length cDNA clones of low-abundance mRNAs. In essence, cDNAs are generated by using the DNA polymerase chain reaction technique to amplify copies of the region between a single point in the transcript and the 3' or 5' end. The minimum information required for this amplification is a single short stretch of sequence within the mRNA to be cloned. Since the cDNAs can be produced in one day, examined by Southern blotting the next, and readily cloned, large numbers of full-length cDNA clones of rare transcripts can be rapidly produced. Moreover, separation of amplified cDNAs by gel electrophoresis allows precise selection by size prior to cloning and thus facilitates the isolation of cDNAs representing variant mRNAs, such as those produced by alternative splicing or by the use of alternative promoters. The efficacy of this method was demonstrated by isolating cDNA clones of mRNA from int-2, a mouse gene that expresses four different transcripts at low abundance, the longest of which is approximately 2.9 kilobases. After less than 0.05% of the cDNAs produced had been screened, 29 independent int-2 clones were isolated. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the 3' and 5' ends of all four int-2 mRNAs were accurately represented by these clones.
TL;DR: An in-depth analysis of 15 diverse human tissue and cell line transcriptomes on the basis of deep sequencing of complementary DNA fragments yielding a digital inventory of gene and mRNA isoform expression suggested common involvement of specific factors in tissue-level regulation of both splicing and polyadenylation.
Abstract: Through alternative processing of pre-messenger RNAs, individual mammalian genes often produce multiple mRNA and protein isoforms that may have related, distinct or even opposing functions. Here we report an in-depth analysis of 15 diverse human tissue and cell line transcriptomes on the basis of deep sequencing of complementary DNA fragments, yielding a digital inventory of gene and mRNA isoform expression. Analyses in which sequence reads are mapped to exon-exon junctions indicated that 92-94% of human genes undergo alternative splicing, 86% with a minor isoform frequency of 15% or more. Differences in isoform-specific read densities indicated that most alternative splicing and alternative cleavage and polyadenylation events vary between tissues, whereas variation between individuals was approximately twofold to threefold less common. Extreme or 'switch-like' regulation of splicing between tissues was associated with increased sequence conservation in regulatory regions and with generation of full-length open reading frames. Patterns of alternative splicing and alternative cleavage and polyadenylation were strongly correlated across tissues, suggesting coordinated regulation of these processes, and sequence conservation of a subset of known regulatory motifs in both alternative introns and 3' untranslated regions suggested common involvement of specific factors in tissue-level regulation of both splicing and polyadenylation.
TL;DR: It is estimated that transcripts from ∼95% of multiexon genes undergoAlternative splicing and that there are ∼100,000 intermediate- to high-abundance alternative splicing events in major human tissues.
Abstract: We carried out the first analysis of alternative splicing complexity in human tissues using mRNA-Seq data. New splice junctions were detected in approximately 20% of multiexon genes, many of which are tissue specific. By combining mRNA-Seq and EST-cDNA sequence data, we estimate that transcripts from approximately 95% of multiexon genes undergo alternative splicing and that there are approximately 100,000 intermediate- to high-abundance alternative splicing events in major human tissues. From a comparison with quantitative alternative splicing microarray profiling data, we also show that mRNA-Seq data provide reliable measurements for exon inclusion levels.
TL;DR: The authors' data provide clues as to how neurons and astrocytes differ in their ability to dynamically regulate glycolytic flux and lactate generation attributable to unique splicing of PKM2, the gene encoding the glycoleytic enzyme pyruvate kinase.
Abstract: The major cell classes of the brain differ in their developmental processes, metabolism, signaling, and function To better understand the functions and interactions of the cell types that comprise these classes, we acutely purified representative populations of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, newly formed oligodendrocytes, myelinating oligodendrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells, and pericytes from mouse cerebral cortex We generated a transcriptome database for these eight cell types by RNA sequencing and used a sensitive algorithm to detect alternative splicing events in each cell type Bioinformatic analyses identified thousands of new cell type-enriched genes and splicing isoforms that will provide novel markers for cell identification, tools for genetic manipulation, and insights into the biology of the brain For example, our data provide clues as to how neurons and astrocytes differ in their ability to dynamically regulate glycolytic flux and lactate generation attributable to unique splicing of PKM2, the gene encoding the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase This dataset will provide a powerful new resource for understanding the development and function of the brain To ensure the widespread distribution of these datasets, we have created a user-friendly website (http://webstanfordedu/group/barres_lab/brain_rnaseqhtml) that provides a platform for analyzing and comparing transciption and alternative splicing profiles for various cell classes in the brain