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Aluminium chloride

About: Aluminium chloride is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2312 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 21740 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Aluminum chloride anhydrous & Aluminum trichloride.
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2004-Carbon
Abstract: Activated carbon fibres (ACF) are obtained mainly by physical activation with steam or carbon dioxide. Additionally, there are many papers dealing with chemical activation of carbon fibres, or a polymeric raw material, with several chemical agents like for example, phosphoric acid, zinc chloride, aluminium chloride,… Nevertheless, although it is well known that hydroxides are good activating agents, there are few papers about the activation of carbon fibres with KOH or NaOH. In the present work, ACF with high surface area are obtained by chemical activation with KOH and NaOH. Both chemical agents present different behaviour; thus, NaOH developed the highest value of porosity and KOH developed samples with narrower micropore size distribution. In order to compare the results with those obtained by physical activation, some ACF have been prepared using CO2 activation. The main conclusion of this work is that by using chemical activation it is possible to obtain similar, or even higher, porosity (∼1 ml/g, ∼3000 m2/g) than by physical activation. However, chemical activation presents two important advantages: (1) a much higher yield (27–47% for chemical activation and 6% physical activation for ∼2500 m2/g activated carbon fibres) and (2) the surface of the fibres prepared by chemical activation is less damaged than by physical activation.

267 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The electrodeposition and surface morphology of aluminium on tungsten (W) and aluminium (Al) electrodes from 2 : 1 molar ratio AlCl 3 –[EMIm]Cl ionic liquids were investigated. Analyses of the chronoamperograms indicate that the deposition process of aluminium on W substrates was controlled by instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth, while the deposition processes of aluminium on Al electrodes were found to be associated with kinetic limitations. Constant potential deposition experiments showed that the electrodeposits obtained on both W and Al electrodes between − 0.10 and − 0.40 V (vs. Al(III)/Al) are dense, continuous and well adherent. Dense aluminium deposits were also obtained on Al substrates using constant current deposition between 10 and 70 mA/cm 2 , and the current efficiency was found to be dependent of the current density varying from 85% to 100%.

267 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that aluminium retained in the bone of the dialysis patients and the experimental animals interferes with normal mineralisation.
Abstract: Iliac bone aluminium was determined by neutron activation analysis in 34 patients with chronic renal failure and in eight control subjects. In 17 patients treated by haemodialysis there was a significant increase in the amount of aluminium (mean +/- SE = 152 +/- 30 ppm bone ash). In eight patients treated by haemodialysis and subsequent renal transplantation, bone aluminium was still significantly increased (92 +/- 4.5 ppm bone ash) but was less than in the haemodialysed patients. In some patients aluminium persisted in bone for many years after successful renal transplantation. There was no relationship between hyperparathyroidism and bone aluminium. Although no statistically significant relationship was found between the mineralisation status of bone and bone aluminium, patients dialysed for the longest periods tended to be those with the highest levels of aluminium, osteomalacia, and dialysis encephalopathy. In 20 rats given daily intraperitoneal injections of aluminium chloride for periods of up to three months, there was accumulation of aluminium in bone (163 +/- 9 ppm ash) to levels comparable to those obtained in the dialysis patients, and after about eight weeks osteomalacia developed. The increased bone aluminium and osteomalacia persisted after injections had been stopped for up to 49 days, although endochondral ossification was restored to normal. As a working hypothesis it is suggested that aluminium retained in the bone of the dialysis patients and the experimental animals interferes with normal mineralisation.

255 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Hierarchical spindle-like γ-Al2O3 materials were prepared in the form of fray ended bundles of twisted nanoflakes by a non-template hydrothermal synthesis and sequential calcination route using aluminium nitrate or aluminium chloride as precursors and urea as precipitating agent. The microstructures, morphologies and textural properties of the resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption–desorption techniques. It was found that the spindle-like γ-Al2O3 particles are composed of at least three levels of hierarchical organization: polycrystalline γ-Al2O3 at the nanoscale, oriented nanoflakes and uniform spindle-like assemblies. The hierarchical γ-Al2O3 particles prepared from aluminium nitrate show a slightly smaller size, fewer self-organized nanoplatelets and better textural properties than γ-Al2O3 prepared from aluminium chloride, due to the larger aqueous ionic radius of NO3− than that of Cl−. The reported experiments allowed us to propose the mechanism of formation of the spindle-like assemblies, which involves self-transformation of metastable amorphous aluminium hydroxide particles and their sequential cooperative assembly. The as-prepared γ-Al2O3 was found to be effective adsorbent for the removal of selective pollutants from wastewater as a result of its unique hierarchical structure and high specific surface area, indicating a promising potential of this material for environmental remediation.

225 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1996-Solid State Ionics
Abstract: The conductivity and phase structure of several composite polyether-alkali metal salt solid electrolytes are analysed and discussed. Species containing Lewis acid centres (AlCl 3 ), Lewis base centres (poly( N , N dimethylacrylamide) as well as those of amphoteric Lewis acid-base character (α-Al 2 O 3 ) are used as fillers. It is suggested that the competition between the Lewis base ether oxygens in the polyether chains and filler Lewis base centres in the complexation of alkali metal cations leads to the formation of different types of complexes and therefore to the modification of the polymer electrolyte ultrastructure. On the other hand acidic centres on the fillers compete with the Lewis acid metal cations in the formation of complexes with the polyether chain. The final ultrastructure and conductivity of composite electrolytes depends on the equilibrium of these Lewis acid-base reactions.

214 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Robert Martin

10 papers, 14 citations

Hervé Cheradame

7 papers, 85 citations

Rabindra M. Chatterje

4 papers, 22 citations

Jean-Pierre Hénichart

4 papers, 15 citations

Duncan J. Macquarrie

4 papers, 54 citations