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Amorphous silicon

About: Amorphous silicon is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 26777 publications have been published within this topic receiving 423234 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
25 Nov 2004-Nature
TL;DR: A novel semiconducting material is proposed—namely, a transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor from the In-Ga-Zn-O system (a-IGZO)—for the active channel in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs), which are fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate sheets and exhibit saturation mobilities and device characteristics are stable during repetitive bending of the TTFT sheet.
Abstract: Transparent electronic devices formed on flexible substrates are expected to meet emerging technological demands where silicon-based electronics cannot provide a solution. Examples of active flexible applications include paper displays and wearable computers1. So far, mainly flexible devices based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)2,3,4,5 and organic semiconductors2,6,7,8,9,10 have been investigated. However, the performance of these devices has been insufficient for use as transistors in practical computers and current-driven organic light-emitting diode displays. Fabricating high-performance devices is challenging, owing to a trade-off between processing temperature and device performance. Here, we propose to solve this problem by using a novel semiconducting material—namely, a transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor from the In-Ga-Zn-O system (a-IGZO)—for the active channel in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs). The a-IGZO is deposited on polyethylene terephthalate at room temperature and exhibits Hall effect mobilities exceeding 10 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is an order of magnitude larger than for hydrogenated amorphous silicon. TTFTs fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate sheets exhibit saturation mobilities of 6–9 cm2 V-1 s-1, and device characteristics are stable during repetitive bending of the TTFT sheet.

7,301 citations

Book
01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: In this article, the role of policy in PV Industry Growth: Past, Present and Future (John Byrne and Lado Kurdgelashvili) is discussed, as well as future cell and array possibilities.
Abstract: About the Editors. List of Contributors. Preface to the 2nd Edition. 1 Achievements and Challenges of Solar Electricity from Photovoltaics (Steven Hegedus and Antonio Luque). 1.1 The Big Picture. 1.2 What is Photovoltaics? 1.3 Photovoltaics Today. 1.4 The Great Challenge. 1.5 Trends in Technology. 1.6 Conclusions. 2 The Role of Policy in PV Industry Growth: Past, Present and Future (John Byrne and Lado Kurdgelashvili). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Policy Review of Selected Countries. 2.3 Policy Impact on PV Market Development. 2.4 Future PV Market Growth Scenarios. 2.5 Toward a Sustainable Future. 3 The Physics of the Solar Cell (Jeffery L. Gray). 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Fundamental Properties of Semiconductors. 3.3 Solar Cell Fundamentals. 3.4 Additional Topics. 3.5 Summary. 4 Theoretical Limits of Photovoltaic Conversion and New-generation Solar Cells (Antonio Luque and Antonio Marti). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Thermodynamic Background. 4.3 Photovoltaic Converters. 4.4 The Technical Efficiency Limit for Solar Converters. 4.5 Very-high-efficiency Concepts. 4.6 Conclusions. 5 Solar Grade Silicon Feedstock (Bruno Ceccaroli and Otto Lohne). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Silicon. 5.3 Production of Silicon Metal/Metallurgical Grade Silicon. 5.4 Production of Polysilicon/Silicon of Electronic and Photovoltaic Grade. 5.5 Current Silicon Feedstock to Solar Cells. 5.6 Requirements of Silicon for Crystalline Solar Cells. 5.7 Routes to Solar Grade Silicon. 5.8 Conclusions. 6 Bulk Crystal Growth and Wafering for PV (Hugo Rodriguez, Ismael Guerrero, Wolfgang Koch, Arthur L. Endros, Dieter Franke, Christian Hassler, Juris P. Kalejs and H. J. Moller). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Bulk Monocrystalline Material. 6.3 Bulk Multicrystalline Silicon. 6.4 Wafering. 6.5 Silicon Ribbon and Foil Production. 6.6 Numerical Simulations of Crystal Growth Techniques. 6.7 Conclusions. 7 Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules (Ignacio Tobias, Carlos del Ca"nizo and Jesus Alonso). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Crystalline Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material. 7.3 Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. 7.4 Manufacturing Process. 7.5 Variations to the Basic Process. 7.6 Other Industrial Approaches. 7.7 Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules. 7.8 Electrical and Optical Performance of Modules. 7.9 Field Performance of Modules. 7.10 Conclusions. 8 High-efficiency III-V Multijunction Solar Cells (D. J. Friedman, J. M. Olson and Sarah Kurtz). 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Applications. 8.3 Physics of III-V Multijunction and Single-junction Solar Cells. 8.4 Cell Configuration. 8.5 Computation of Series-connected Device Performance. 8.6 Materials Issues Related to GaInP/GaAs/Ge Solar Cells. 8.7 Epilayer Characterization and Other Diagnostic Techniques. 8.8 Reliability and Degradation. 8.9 Future-generation Solar Cells. 8.10 Summary. 9 Space Solar Cells and Arrays (Sheila Bailey and Ryne Raffaelle). 9.1 The History of Space Solar Cells. 9.2 The Challenge for Space Solar Cells. 9.3 Silicon Solar Cells. 9.4 III-V Solar Cells. 9.5 Space Solar Arrays. 9.6 Future Cell and Array Possibilities. 9.7 Power System Figures of Merit. 9.8 Summary. 10 Photovoltaic Concentrators (Gabriel Sala and Ignacio Anton). 10.1 What is the Aim of Photovoltaic Concentration and What Does it Do? 10.2 Objectives, Limitations and Opportunities. 10.3 Typical Concentrators: an Attempt at Classification. 10.4 Concentration Optics: Thermodynamic Limits. 10.5 Factors of Merit for Concentrators in Relation to the Optics. 10.6 Photovoltaic Concentration Modules and Assemblies. 10.7 Tracking for Concentrator Systems. 10.8 Measurements of Cells, Modules and Photovoltaic Systems in Concentration. 10.9 Summary. 11 Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells via High-temperature and Intermediate-temperature Approaches (Armin G. Aberle and Per I. Widenborg). 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Modelling. 11.4 Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Intermediate-T Foreign Supporting Materials. 11.5 Conclusions. 12 Amorphous Silicon-based Solar Cells (Eric A. Schiff, Steven Hegedus and Xunming Deng). 12.1 Overview. 12.2 Atomic and Electronic Structure of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon. 12.3 Depositing Amorphous Silicon. 12.4 Understanding a-Si pin Cells. 12.5 Multijunction Solar Cells. 12.6 Module Manufacturing. 12.7 Conclusions and Future Projections. 13 Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells (William N. Shafarman, Susanne Siebentritt and Lars Stolt). 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Material Properties. 13.3 Deposition Methods. 13.4 Junction and Device Formation. 13.5 Device Operation. 13.6 Manufacturing Issues. 13.7 The Cu(InGa)Se2 Outlook. 14 Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells (Brian E. McCandless and James R. Sites). 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Historical Development. 14.3 CdTe Properties. 14.4 CdTe Film Deposition. 14.5 CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells. 14.6 CdTe Modules. 14.7 Future of CdTe-based Solar Cells. 15 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (Kohjiro Hara and Shogo Mori). 15.1 Introduction. 15.2 Operating Mechanism of DSSC. 15.3 Materials. 15.4 Performance of Highly Efficient DSSCs. 15.5 Electron-transfer Processes. 15.6 New Materials. 15.7 Stability. 15.8 Approach to Commercialization. 15.9 Summary and Prospects. 16 Sunlight Energy Conversion Via Organics (Sam-Shajing Sun and Hugh O'Neill). 16.1 Principles of Organic and Polymeric Photovoltaics. 16.2 Evolution and Types of Organic and Polymeric Solar Cells. 16.3 Organic and Polymeric Solar Cell Fabrication and Characterization. 16.4 Natural Photosynthetic Sunlight Energy Conversion Systems. 16.5 Artificial Photosynthetic Systems. 16.6 Artificial Reaction Centers. 16.7 Towards Device Architectures. 16.8 Summary and Future Perspectives. 17 Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics (Alan E. Delahoy and Sheyu Guo). 17.1 Introduction. 17.2 Survey of Materials. 17.3 Deposition Methods. 17.4 TCO Theory and Modeling: Electrical and Optical Properties and their Impact on Module Performance. 17.5 Principal Materials and Issues for Thin Film and Wafer-based PV. 17.6 Textured Films. 17.7 Measurements and Characterization Methods. 17.8 TCO Stability. 17.9 Recent Developments and Prospects. 18 Measurement and Characterization of Solar Cells and Modules (Keith Emery). 18.1 Introduction. 18.2 Rating PV Performance. 18.3 Current-Voltage Measurements. 18.4 Spectral Responsivity Measurements. 18.5 Module Qualification and Certification. 18.6 Summary. 19 PV Systems (Charles M. Whitaker, Timothy U. Townsend, Anat Razon, Raymond M. Hudson and Xavier Vallve). 19.1 Introduction: There is gold at the end of the rainbow. 19.2 System Types. 19.3 Exemplary PV Systems. 19.4 Ratings. 19.5 Key System Components. 19.6 System Design Considerations. 19.7 System Design. 19.8 Installation. 19.9 Operation and Maintenance/Monitoring. 19.10 Removal, Recycling and Remediation. 19.11 Examples. 20 Electrochemical Storage for Photovoltaics (Dirk Uwe Sauer). 20.1 Introduction. 20.2 General Concept of Electrochemical Batteries. 20.3 Typical Operation Conditions of Batteries in PV Applications. 20.4 Secondary Electrochemical Accumulators with Internal Storage. 20.5 Secondary Electrochemical Battery Systems with External Storage. 20.6 Investment and Lifetime Cost Considerations. 20.7 Conclusion. 21 Power Conditioning for Photovoltaic Power Systems (Heribert Schmidt, Bruno Burger and Jurgen Schmid). 21.1 Charge Controllers and Monitoring Systems for Batteries in PV Power Systems. 21.2 Inverters. 22 Energy Collected and Delivered by PV Modules (Eduardo Lorenzo). 22.1 Introduction. 22.2 Movement between Sun and Earth. 22.3 Solar Radiation Components. 22.4 Solar Radiation Data and Uncertainty. 22.5 Radiation on Inclined Surfaces. 22.6 Diurnal Variations of the Ambient Temperature. 22.7 Effects of the Angle of Incidence and of Dirt. 22.8 Some Calculation Tools. 22.9 Irradiation on Most Widely Studied Surfaces. 22.10 PV Generator Behaviour Under Real Operation Conditions. 22.11 Reliability and Sizing of Stand-alone PV Systems. 22.12 The Case of Solar Home Systems. 22.13 Energy Yield of Grid-connected PV Systems. 22.14 Conclusions. 23 PV in Architecture (Tjerk H. Reijenga and Henk F. Kaan). 23.1 Introduction. 23.2 PV in Architecture. 23.3 BIPV Basics. 23.4 Steps in the Design Process with PV. 23.5 Concluding Remarks. 24 Photovoltaics and Development (Jorge M. Huacuz, Jaime Agredano and Lalith Gunaratne). 24.1 Electricity and Development. 24.2 Breaking the Chains of Underdevelopment. 24.3 The PV Alternative. 24.4 Examples of PV Rural Electrification. 24.5 Toward a New Paradigm for Rural Electrification. References. Index.

2,816 citations

MonographDOI
R. A. Street1
30 Aug 1991
TL;DR: In this article, the electronic density of states of amorphous silicon and their electronic states have been investigated in terms of defect reactions, thermal equilibrium and metastability, as well as their electronic properties.
Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Growth and structure of amorphous silicon 3. The electronic density of states 4. Defects and their electronic states 5. Substitutional doping 6. Defect reactions, thermal equilibrium and metastability 7. Electronic transport 8. Recombination of excess carriers 9. Contacts, interfaces and multilayers 10. Amorphous silicon device technology.

2,003 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the state-of-the-art in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) are reviewed in light of requirements for demanding future applications, in particular active-matrix addressing for flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays.
Abstract: Over the past 25 years, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have witnessed impressive improvements in materials performance by 3–4 orders of magnitude, and many of the key materials discoveries have been published in Advanced Materials. This includes some of the most recent demonstrations of organic field-effect transistors with performance that clearly exceeds that of benchmark amorphous silicon-based devices. In this article, state-of-the-art in OFETs are reviewed in light of requirements for demanding future applications, in particular active-matrix addressing for flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. An overview is provided over both small molecule and conjugated polymer materials for which field-effect mobilities exceeding > 1 cm2 V–1 s–1 have been reported. Current understanding is also reviewed of their charge transport physics that allows reaching such unexpectedly high mobilities in these weakly van der Waals bonded and structurally comparatively disordered materials with a view towards understanding the potential for further improvement in performance in the future.

1,992 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the structural changes in silicon electrochemically lithiated and delithiated at room temperature were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, and it was shown that highly lithiated amorphous silicon suddenly crystallizes at 50 mV to form a new lithium-silicon phase, identified as This phase is the fully lithiated phase for silicon at room-temperature, not as is widely believed.
Abstract: The structural changes in silicon electrochemically lithiated and delithiated at room temperature were studied by X-ray powder diffraction. Crystalline silicon becomes amorphous during lithium insertion, confirming previous studies. Highly lithiated amorphous silicon suddenly crystallizes at 50 mV to form a new lithium-silicon phase, identified as This phase is the fully lithiated phase for silicon at room temperature, not as is widely believed. Delithiation of the phase results in the formation of amorphous silicon. Cycling silicon anodes above 50 mV avoids the formation of crystallized phases completely and results in better cycling performance. © 2004 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

1,686 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023118
2022214
2021245
2020422
2019526
2018571