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Amorphous solid

About: Amorphous solid is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 117050 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 2267692 citation(s).

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Abstract: The optical constants of amorphous Ge are determined for the photon energies from 0.08 to 1.6 eV. From 0.08 to 0.5 eV, the absorption is due to k-conserving transitions of holes between the valence bands as in p-type crystals; the spin-orbit splitting is found to be 0.20 and 0.21 eV in non-annealed, and annealed samples respectively. The effective masses of the holes in the three bands are 0.49 m (respectively 0.43 m); 0.04 m, and 0.08 m. An absorption band is observed below the main absorption edge (at 300 °K the maximum of this band is at 0.86 eV); the absorption in this band increases with increasing temperature. This band is considered to be due to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, and these are presumably the same ones that play a decisive role in the transport properties and which are considered to be associated with vacancies. The absorption edge has the form: ω2ϵ2∼(hω−Eg)2 (Eg = 0.88 eV at 300 °K). This suggests that the optical transitions conserve energy but not k vector, and that the densities of states near the band extrema have the same energy-dependence as in crystalline Ge. A simple theory describing this situation is proposed, and comparison of it with the experimental results leads to an estimate of the localization of the conduction-band wavefunctions.

6,773 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Akihisa Inoue1
Abstract: Bulk metallic materials have ordinarily been produced by melting and solidification processes for the last several thousand years. However, metallic liquid is unstable at temperatures below the melting temperature and solidifies immediately into crystalline phases. Consequently, all bulk engineering alloys are composed of a crystalline structure. Recently, this common concept was exploded by the findings of the stabilization phenomenon of the supercooled liquid for a number of alloys in the Mg-, lanthanide-, Zr-, Ti-, Fe-, Co-, Pd-Cu- and Ni-based systems. The alloys with the stabilized supercooled liquid state have three features in their alloy components, i.e. multicomponent systems, significant atomic size ratios above 12%, and negative heats of mixing. The stabilization mechanism has also been investigated from experimental data of structure analyses and fundamental physical properties. The stabilization has enabled the pro- duction of bulk amorphous alloys in the thickness range of 1-100 mm by using various casting processes. Bulk amorphous Zr-based alloys exhibit high mechanical strength, high fracture toughness and good cor- rosion resistance and have been used for sporting goods materials. The stabilization also leads to the appearance of a large supercooled liquid region before crystallization and enables high-strain rate super- plasticity through Newtonian flow. The new Fe- and Co-based amorphous alloys exhibit a large super- cooled liquid region and good soft magnetic properties which are characterized by low coercive force and high permeability. Furthermore, homogeneous dispersion of nanoscale particles into Zr-based bulk amor- phous alloys was found to cause an improvement of tensile strength without detriment to good ductility. The discovery of the stabilization phenomenon, followed by the clarification of the stabilization criteria of the supercooled liquid, will promise the future definite development of bulk amorphous alloys as new basic science and engineering materials. # 2000 Acta Metallurgica Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

4,806 citations

01 Jan 1974
Abstract: 1 The Nature of the Amorphous State.- 2 Structure of Amorphous Semi-conductors.- 3 Electronic Structure of Disordered Materials.- 4 Optical Properties of Amorphous Semiconductors.- 5 Electronic Properties of Amorphous Semiconductors.- 6 Switching and Memory in Amorphous Semiconductors.- 7 Structure and Electronic Properties of Liquid Semiconductors.

4,484 citations

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