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Amperometry

About: Amperometry is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6133 publications have been published within this topic receiving 204489 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Type III adenosine deaminase would be the best choice for the construction of an immobilized enzyme electrode both from the point of view of apparent Km and Vmax values and from the less pronounced product inhibition effect on the type III enzyme compared to the Type V enzyme.
Abstract: for each type of enzyme but in an opposite direction for each. The type III enzyme experiences an increase in apparent Km with increasing inosine concentration, while the type V enzyme shows a slight decrease in apparent Km at high inosine concentration. The most dramatic homogeneous effect is that of increasing inosine concentration upon the VmM values, however. For the type III enzyme, apparent VmiU! is reduced by nearly a factor of 2 but, for the type V enzyme, apparent Vma, decreases more than 7-fold. Such product inhibition reveals itself through longer response times in the immobilized enzyme electrodes. The results obtained in this study show that the potentiometric ammonia gas-sensing enzyme electrode does exhibit linear responses to substrate concentrations both above and below the Km value of the adenosine deaminase enzyme when sufficient enzyme is immobilized at the electrode surface. The BSA-glutaraldehyde cross-link provides for stabilization of the enzyme activity as shown by the observed electrode lifetime. Comparison of the homogeneous kinetic parameters with those obtained from the immobilized study reveals significant changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme when it is immobilized, possibly resulting from conformational changes in the enzyme upon exposure to BSA and glutaraldehyde. The magnitude of the effect of addition of inosine on apparent Km and Vmax depends upon whether the enzyme is immobilized or free in solution. The apparent Km for the immobilized enzyme remained essentially constant upon addition of inosine, while the apparent Km for the homogeneous enzyme did show some variation but in opposite direction for the type III and V enzymes. In the construction of enzyme electrodes, it is desirable to obtain the highest (fastest rate) and lowest Km (greatest affinity) values possible. From the results of this study carried out at high enzyme levels it is apparent that type III adenosine deaminase would be the best choice for the construction of an immobilized enzyme electrode both from the point of view of apparent Km and Vmax values and from the less pronounced product inhibition effect on the type III enzyme compared to the Type V enzyme. Even in the absence of initial inosine, type III enzyme electrodes have faster response times than corresponding electrodes prepared with type V enzyme.

1,687 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses on recent literature that describes how CNT-based electrochemical sensors are being developed to detect neurotransmitters, proteins, small molecules such as glucose, and DNA.

899 citations

Patent
31 Aug 2009
TL;DR: In this article, a small diameter flexible electrode designed for subcutaneous in vivo amperometric monitoring of glucose is described, which is designed to allow "one-point" in vivo calibration, i.e., to have zero output current at zero glucose concentration, even in the presence of other electroreactive species of serum or blood.
Abstract: A small diameter flexible electrode designed for subcutaneous in vivo amperometric monitoring of glucose is described. The electrode is designed to allow “one-point” in vivo calibration, i.e., to have zero output current at zero glucose concentration, even in the presence of other electroreactive species of serum or blood. The electrode is preferably three or four-layered, with the layers serially deposited within a recess upon the tip of a polyamide insulated gold wire. A first glucose concentration-to-current transducing layer is overcoated with an electrically insulating and glucose flux limiting layer (second layer) on which, optionally, an immobilized interference-eliminating horseradish peroxidase based film is deposited (third layer). An outer (fourth) layer is biocompatible.

844 citations

Patent
29 Sep 2009
TL;DR: In this article, a sensor is designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator.
Abstract: A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable. The amount of analyte can be determined by coulometry. One particular coulometric technique includes the measurement of the current between the working electrode and a counter or reference electrode at two or more times. The charge passed by this current to or from the analyte is correlated with the amount of analyte in the sample. Other electrochemical detection methods, such as amperometric, voltammetric, and potentiometric techniques, can also be used. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is provided as a second electron transfer agent.

749 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023268
2022513
2021190
2020183
2019190
2018221