About: Amplicon Size is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 118 publications have been published within this topic receiving 9170 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The results of this study may be used as a guideline for selecting primer pairs with the best overall coverage and phylum spectrum for specific applications, therefore reducing the bias in PCR-based microbial diversity studies.
Abstract: 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicon analysis remains the standard approach for the cultivation-independent investigation of microbial diversity. The accuracy of these analyses depends strongly on the choice of primers. The overall coverage and phylum spectrum of 175 primers and 512 primer pairs were evaluated in silico with respect to the SILVA 16S/18S rDNA non-redundant reference dataset (SSURef 108 NR). Based on this evaluation a selection of 'best available' primer pairs for Bacteria and Archaea for three amplicon size classes (100-400, 400-1000, ≥ 1000 bp) is provided. The most promising bacterial primer pair (S-D-Bact-0341-b-S-17/S-D-Bact-0785-a-A-21), with an amplicon size of 464 bp, was experimentally evaluated by comparing the taxonomic distribution of the 16S rDNA amplicons with 16S rDNA fragments from directly sequenced metagenomes. The results of this study may be used as a guideline for selecting primer pairs with the best overall coverage and phylum spectrum for specific applications, therefore reducing the bias in PCR-based microbial diversity studies.
TL;DR: A total of 306 800 primers covering most known human and mouse genes can be accessed from the PrimerBank database, together with information on these primers such as Tm, location on the transcript and amplicon size.
Abstract: PrimerBank (http://pga.mgh.harvard.edu/primerbank/) is a public resource for the retrieval of human and mouse primer pairs for gene expression analysis by PCR and Quantitative PCR (QPCR). A total of 306 800 primers covering most known human and mouse genes can be accessed from the PrimerBank database, together with information on these primers such as Tm, location on the transcript and amplicon size. For each gene, at least one primer pair has been designed and in many cases alternative primer pairs exist. Primers have been designed to work under the same PCR conditions, thus facilitating high-throughput QPCR. There are several ways to search for primers for the gene(s) of interest, such as by: GenBank accession number, NCBI protein accession number, NCBI gene ID, PrimerBank ID, NCBI gene symbol or gene description (keyword). In all, 26 855 primer pairs covering most known mouse genes have been experimentally validated by QPCR, agarose gel analysis, sequencing and BLAST, and all validation data can be freely accessed from the PrimerBank web site.
TL;DR: It is found that amplicon size and melting temperature are important in some inhibition mechanisms and not in others and the key issue in understanding PCR inhibition is determining the identity of the interfering substance.
Abstract: In this project, real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to study the mechanism of PCR inhibition through examination of the effect of amplicon length, melting temperature, and sequence. Specifically designed primers with three different amplicon lengths and three different melting temperatures were used to target a single homozygous allele in the HUMTH01 locus. The effect on amplification efficiency for each primer pair was determined by adding different concentrations of various PCR inhibitors to the reaction mixture. The results show that a variety of inhibition mechanisms can occur during the PCR process depending on the type of co-extracted inhibitor. These include Taq inhibition, DNA template binding, and effects on reaction efficiency. In addition, some inhibitors appear to affect the reaction in more than one manner. Overall we find that amplicon size and melting temperature are important in some inhibition mechanisms and not in others and the key issue in understanding PCR inhibition is determining the identity of the interfering substance.
TL;DR: A novel primer set and work flow for simultaneous quantification and species-level interrogation of fungal consortia is designed and can rapidly profile mixed fungal communities and capably reconstructed well-characterized beer and wine fermentationfungal communities.
Abstract: Ultra-high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of fungal communities has been restricted by short read lengths and primer amplification bias, slowing the adoption of newer sequencing technologies to fungal community profiling. To address these issues, we evaluated the performance of several common internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers and designed a novel primer set and work flow for simultaneous quantification and species-level interrogation of fungal consortia. Primer comparison and validation were predicted in silico and by sequencing a "mock community" of mixed yeast species to explore the challenges of amplicon length and amplification bias for reconstructing defined yeast community structures. The amplicon size and distribution of this primer set are smaller than for all preexisting ITS primer sets, maximizing sequencing coverage of hypervariable ITS domains by very-short-amplicon, high-throughput sequencing platforms. This feature also enables the optional integration of quantitative PCR (qPCR) directly into the HTS preparatory work flow by substituting qPCR with these primers for standard PCR, yielding quantification of individual community members. The complete work flow described here, utilizing any of the qualified primer sets evaluated, can rapidly profile mixed fungal communities and capably reconstructed well-characterized beer and wine fermentation fungal communities.
TL;DR: Having been validated using a panel of well-defined samples from carnivores with known infection status, this approach proved to be useful for the identification of taeniid eggs from both individual animals and for epidemiological studies.
Abstract: A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated for the identification of morphologically indistinguishable eggs of the taeniid tapeworms from carnivores using primers targeting mitochondrial genes. The primers for Echinococcus multilocularis (amplicon size 395 bp) were species-specific as assessed by in silica analysis and in the PCR using well-defined control samples. The design of primers that specifically amplify DNA from E. granulosus or Taenia spp. was not possible. The primers designed for E. granulosus also amplified DNA (117 bp) from E. vogeli, and those designed for Taenia spp. amplified products (267 bp) from species of Mesocestoides, Dipylidium and Diphyllobothrium. Nevertheless, as our diagnostic approach includes the concentration of taeniid eggs by sequential sieving and flotation, followed by their morphological detection, this non-specificity has limited practical importance. Sequence analysis of the corresponding amplicon can identify most of the described E. granulosus genotypes. Taenia spp. can be identified by direct sequencing of the 267 bp amplicon, or, for most species, by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The multiplex PCR was readily able to detect 1 egg (estimated to contain 7000 targets, as determined by quantitative PCR). Having been validated using a panel of well-defined samples from carnivores with known infection status, this approach proved to be useful for the identification of taeniid eggs from both individual animals and for epidemiological studies.