Topic

# Amplitude

About: Amplitude is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 46213 publications have been published within this topic receiving 733850 citations.

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01 Jan 1963TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the semiclassical theory, when extended to take into account both the effect of the field on the molecules and the effects of the molecules on the field, reproduces the same laws of energy exchange and coherence properties as the quantized field theory, even in the limit of one or a few quanta in the field mode.

Abstract: This paper has two purposes: 1) to clarify the relationship between the quantum theory of radiation, where the electromagnetic field-expansion coefficients satisfy commutation relations, and the semiclassical theory, where the electromagnetic field is considered as a definite function of time rather than as an operator; and 2) to apply some of the results in a study of amplitude and frequency stability in a molecular beam maser. In 1), it is shown that the semiclassical theory, when extended te take into account both the effect of the field on the molecules and the effect of the molecules on the field, reproduces almost quantitatively the same laws of energy exchange and coherence properties as the quantized field theory, even in the limit of one or a few quanta in the field mode. In particular, the semiclassical theory is shown to lead to a prediction of spontaneous emission, with the same decay rate as given by quantum electrodynamics, described by the Einstein A coefficients. In 2), the semiclassical theory is applied to the molecular beam maser. Equilibrium amplitude and frequency of oscillation are obtained for an arbitrary velocity distribution of focused molecules, generalizing the results obtained previously by Gordon, Zeiger, and Townes for a singel-velocity beam, and by Lamb and Helmer for a Maxwellian beam. A somewhat surprising result is obtained; which is that the measurable properties of the maser, such as starting current, effective molecular Q, etc., depend mostly on the slowest 5 to 10 per cent of the molecules. Next we calculate the effect of amplitude and frequency of oscillation, of small systematic perturbations. We obtain a prediction that stability can be improved by adjusting the system so that the molecules emit all their energy h Ω to the field, then reabsorb part of it, before leaving the cavity. In general, the most stable operation is obtained when the molecules are in the process of absorbing energy from the radiation as they leave the cavity, most unstable when they are still emitting energy at that time. Finally, we consider the response of an oscillating maser to randomly time-varying perturbations. Graphs are given showing predicted response to a small superimposed signal of a frequency near the oscillation frequency. The existence of "noise enhancing" and "noise quieting" modes of operation found here is a general property of any oscillating system in which amplitude is limited by nonlinearity.

3,928 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a finite-difference method for modeling P-SV wave propagation in heterogeneous media is presented, which is an extension of the method I previously proposed for modeling SH-wave propagation by using velocity and stress in a discrete grid, where the stability condition and the P-wave phase velocity dispersion curve do not depend on the Poisson's ratio.

Abstract: I present a finite-difference method for modeling P-SV wave propagation in heterogeneous media This is an extension of the method I previously proposed for modeling SH-wave propagation by using velocity and stress in a discrete grid The two components of the velocity cannot be defined at the same node for a complete staggered grid: the stability condition and the P-wave phase velocity dispersion curve do not depend on the Poisson's ratio, while the S-wave phase velocity dispersion curve behavior is rather insensitive to the Poisson's ratio Therefore, the same code used for elastic media can be used for liquid media, where S-wave velocity goes to zero, and no special treatment is needed for a liquid-solid interface Typical physical phenomena arising with P-SV modeling, such as surface waves, are in agreement with analytical results The weathered-layer and corner-edge models show in seismograms the same converted phases obtained by previous authors This method gives stable results for step discontinuities, as shown for a liquid layer above an elastic half-space The head wave preserves the correct amplitude Finally, the corner-edge model illustrates a more complex geometry for the liquid-solid interface As the Poisson's ratio v increases from 025 to 05, the shear converted phases are removed from seismograms and from the time section of the wave field

2,583 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the first year of data from the differential microwave radiometers on the Cosmic Background Explorer was presented, and the angular autocorrelation of the signal in each radiometer channel and cross-correlation between channels were consistent and gave a primordial fluctuation power-law spectrum with index of 1.1 +/- 0.5, and an rms-quadrupole-normalized amplitude of 16 +/- 4 micro-K.

Abstract: Results of the first year of data from the differential microwave radiometers on the Cosmic Background Explorer are presented. Statistically significant structure that is well described as scale-invariant fluctuations with a Gaussian distribution is shown. The rms sky variation, smoothed to a total 10-deg FWHM Gaussian, is 30 +/-5 micro-K for Galactic latitude greater than 20-deg data with the dipole anisotropy removed. The rms cosmic quadrupole amplitude is 13 +/-4 micro-K. The angular autocorrelation of the signal in each radiometer channel and cross-correlation between channels are consistent and give a primordial fluctuation power-law spectrum with index of 1.1 +/-0.5, and an rms-quadrupole-normalized amplitude of 16 +/-4 micro-K. These features are in accord with the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum predicted by models of inflationary cosmology.

2,195 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a multichannel shot gather is decomposed into a swept-frequency record, allowing the fast generation of an accurate dispersion curve, which can then be examined and its effects appraised in both frequency and offset space.

Abstract: The frequency-dependent properties of Rayleigh-type surface waves can be utilized for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface. Most surface-wave analysis relies on the accurate calculation of phase velocities for the horizontally traveling fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave acquired by stepping out a pair of receivers at intervals based on calculated ground roll wavelengths. Interference by coherent source-generated noise inhibits the reliability of shear-wave velocities determined through inversion of the whole wave field. Among these nonplanar, nonfundamental-mode Rayleigh waves (noise) are body waves, scattered and nonsource-generated surface waves, and higher-mode surface waves. The degree to which each of these types of noise contaminates the dispersion curve and, ultimately, the inverted shear-wave velocity profile is dependent on frequency as well as distance from the source. Multichannel recording permits effective identification and isolation of noise according to distinctive traceto-trace coherency in arrival time and amplitude. An added advantage is the speed and redundancy of the measurement process. Decomposition of a multichannel record into a time variable-frequency format, similar to an uncorrelated Vibroseis record, permits analysis and display of each frequency component in a unique and continuous format. Coherent noise contamination can then be examined and its effects appraised in both frequency and offset space. Separation of frequency components permits real-time maximization of the S/N ratio during acquisition and subsequent processing steps. Linear separation of each ground roll frequency component allows calculation of phase velocities by simply measuring the linear slope of each frequency component. Breaks in coherent surface-wave arrivals, observable on the decomposed record, can be compensated for during acquisition and processing. Multichannel recording permits single-measurement surveying of a broad depth range, high levels of redundancy with a single field configuration, and the ability to adjust the offset, effectively reducing random or nonlinear noise introduced during recording. A multichannel shot gather decomposed into a sweptfrequency record allows the fast generation of an accurate dispersion curve. The accuracy of dispersion curves determined using this method is proven through field comparisons of the inverted shear-wave velocity (vs) profile with a downholevs profile.

2,131 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the stability of periodic wave trains to small disturbances in the form of a pair of side-band modes is presented, where the wave train becomes highly irregular far from its origin, even when the departures from periodicity are scarcely detectable at the start.

Abstract: The phenomenon in question arises when a periodic progressive wave train with fundamental frequency ω is formed on deep water—say by radiation from an oscillating paddle—and there are also present residual wave motions at adjacent side-band frequencies ω(1 ± δ), such as would be generated if the movement of the paddle suffered a slight modulation at low frequency. In consequence of coupling through the non-linear boundary conditions at the free surface, energy is then transferred from the primary motion to the side bands at a rate that, as will be shown herein, can increase exponentially as the interaction proceeds. The result is that the wave train becomes highly irregular far from its origin, even when the departures from periodicity are scarcely detectable at the start.In this paper a theoretical investigation is made into the stability of periodic wave trains to small disturbances in the form of a pair of side-band modes, and Part 2 which will follow is an account of some experimental observations in accord with the present predictions. The main conclusion of the theory is that infinitesimal disturbances of the type considered will undergo unbounded magnification if
\[
0 < \delta \leqslant (\sqrt{2})ka,
\]
where k and a are the fundamental wave-number and amplitude of the perturbed wave train. The asymptotic rate of growth is a maximum for δ = ka.

2,109 citations