scispace - formally typeset

Topic

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

About: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12011 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 494642 citation(s). The topic is also known as: ALS & Lou Gehrig's disease.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
04 Mar 1993-Nature
TL;DR: Tight genetic linkage between FALS and a gene that encodes a cytosolic, Cu/Zn-binding superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a homodimeric metalloenzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of the toxic superoxide anion O–2 to O2 and H2O2 is reported.
Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. Its cause is unknown and it is uniformly fatal, typically within five years. About 10% of cases are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with high penetrance after the sixth decade. In most instances, sporadic and autosomal dominant familial ALS (FALS) are clinically similar. We have previously shown that in some but not all FALS pedigrees the disease is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 21q (refs 8, 9). Here we report tight genetic linkage between FALS and a gene that encodes a cytosolic, Cu/Zn-binding superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a homodimeric metalloenzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of the toxic superoxide anion O2.- to O2 and H2O2 (ref. 10). Given this linkage and the potential role of free radical toxicity in other neurodenegerative disorders, we investigated SOD1 as a candidate gene in FALS. We identified 11 different SOD1 missense mutations in 13 different FALS families.

6,370 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Oct 2006-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that TDP-43 is the major disease protein in both frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Abstract: Ubiquitin-positive, tau- and alpha-synuclein-negative inclusions are hallmarks of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although the identity of the ubiquitinated protein specific to either disorder was unknown, we showed that TDP-43 is the major disease protein in both disorders. Pathologic TDP-43 was hyper-phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved to generate C-terminal fragments and was recovered only from affected central nervous system regions, including hippocampus, neocortex, and spinal cord. TDP-43 represents the common pathologic substrate linking these neurodegenerative disorders.

4,754 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Jun 1994-Science
Abstract: Mutations of human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) are found in about 20 percent of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Expression of high levels of human SOD containing a substitution of glycine to alanine at position 93--a change that has little effect on enzyme activity--caused motor neuron disease in transgenic mice. The mice became paralyzed in one or more limbs as a result of motor neuron loss from the spinal cord and died by 5 to 6 months of age. The results show that dominant, gain-of-function mutations in SOD contribute to the pathogenesis of familial ALS.

3,753 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In many neurologic disorders, injury to neurons may be caused at least in part by overstimulation of receptors for excitatory amino acids, including glutamate and aspartate.
Abstract: In many neurologic disorders, injury to neurons may be caused at least in part by overstimulation of receptors for excitatory amino acids, including glutamate and aspartate. These neurologic conditions range from acute insults such as stroke, hypoglycemia, trauma, and epilepsy (Table 1) to chronic neurodegenerative states such as Huntington's disease, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and perhaps Alzheimer's disease (Table 2)1–3. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and its interactions with specific membrane receptors are responsible for many neurologic functions, including cognition, memory, movement, and sensation4. In addition, excitatory . . .

2,687 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Mar 2008-Science
TL;DR: The evidence suggests a pathophysiological link between TDP-43 and ALS, and neighboring mutations in a highly conserved region of TARDBP in sporadic and familial ALS cases.
Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disorder characterized pathologically by ubiquitinated TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions. The function of TDP-43 in the nervous system is uncertain, and a mechanistic role in neurodegeneration remains speculative. We identified neighboring mutations in a highly conserved region of TARDBP in sporadic and familial ALS cases. TARDBPM337V segregated with disease within one kindred and a genome-wide scan confirmed that linkage was restricted to chromosome 1p36, which contains the TARDBP locus. Mutant forms of TDP-43 fragmented in vitro more readily than wild type and, in vivo, caused neural apoptosis and developmental delay in the chick embryo. Our evidence suggests a pathophysiological link between TDP-43 and ALS.

2,203 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Alzheimer's disease

21K papers, 1.7M citations

90% related
Epilepsy

62.7K papers, 1.7M citations

86% related
Dementia

72.2K papers, 2.7M citations

85% related
Neuroprotection

32.5K papers, 1.4M citations

84% related
Dopaminergic

29K papers, 1.4M citations

83% related
Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20228
2021713
2020703
2019651
2018619
2017621