About: Anammox is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4366 publications have been published within this topic receiving 151194 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The processes that affect removal and retention of nitrogen during wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (CWs) are manifold and include NH(3) volatilization, nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen fixation, plant and microbial uptake, mineralization, mineralification, nitrate reduction to ammonium, anaerobic ammonia oxidation, fragmentation, sorption, desorption, burial, and leaching.
TL;DR: It is suggested that the SBR could be used for the enrichment and quantitative study of a large number of slowly growing microorganisms that are currently out of reach for microbiological research.
Abstract: Currently available microbiological techniques are not designed to deal with very slowly growing microorganisms. The enrichment and study of such organisms demands a novel experimental approach. In the present investigation, the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was applied and optimized for the enrichment and quantitative study of a very slowly growing microbial community which oxidizes ammonium anaerobically. The SBR was shown to be a powerful experimental set-up with the following strong points: (1) efficient biomass retention, (2) a homogeneous distribution of substrates, products and biomass aggregates over the reactor, (3) reliable operation for more than 1 year, and (4) stable conditions under substrate-limiting conditions. Together, these points made possible for the first time the determination of several important physiological parameters such as the biomass yield (0.066 ± 0.01 C-mol/mol ammonium), the maximum specific ammonium consumption rate (45 ± 5 nmol/mg protein/min) and the maximum specific growth rate (0.0027 · h−1, doubling time 11 days). In addition, the persisting stable and strongly selective conditions of the SBR led to a high degree of enrichment (74% of the desired microorganism). This study has demonstrated that the SBR is a powerful tool compared to other techniques used in the past. We suggest that the SBR could be used for the enrichment and quantitative study of a large number of slowly growing microorganisms that are currently out of reach for microbiological research.
TL;DR: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a new process in which ammonium is oxidized with nitrate serving as the electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions, producing dinitrogen gas, and has been given the name ‘Anammox’ (anaerobic ammonia oxidation), and has be patented.
TL;DR: The discovery of this missing lithotroph and its identification as a new, autotrophic member of the order Planctomycetales, one of the major distinct divisions of the Bacteria makes an important contribution to the problem of unculturability.
Abstract: With the increased use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture, many densely populated countries face environmental problems associated with high ammonia emissions. The process of anaerobic ammonia oxidation ('anammox') is one of the most innovative technological advances in the removal of ammonia nitrogen from waste water. This new process combines ammonia and nitrite directly into dinitrogen gas. Until now, bacteria capable of anaerobically oxidizing ammonia had never been found and were known as "lithotrophs missing from nature". Here we report the discovery of this missing lithotroph and its identification as a new, autotrophic member of the order Planctomycetales, one of the major distinct divisions of the Bacteria. The new planctomycete grows extremely slowly, dividing only once every two weeks. At present, it cannot be cultivated by conventional microbiological techniques. The identification of this bacterium as the one responsible for anaerobic oxidation of ammonia makes an important contribution to the problem of unculturability.
TL;DR: This work presents a summary of PN/A technologies that have been successfully developed, implemented and optimized for high-strength ammonium wastewaters with low C:N ratios and elevated temperatures and discusses the remaining obstacles.
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