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About: Anatase is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 24177 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 795572 citation(s). The topic is also known as: octahedrite.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Ulrike Diebold1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Titanium dioxide is the most investigated single-crystalline system in the surface science of metal oxides, and the literature on rutile (1 1 0), (1 0 0), (0 0 1), and anatase surfaces is reviewed This paper starts with a summary of the wide variety of technical fields where TiO 2 is of importance The bulk structure and bulk defects (as far as relevant to the surface properties) are briefly reviewed Rules to predict stable oxide surfaces are exemplified on rutile (1 1 0) The surface structure of rutile (1 1 0) is discussed in some detail Theoretically predicted and experimentally determined relaxations of surface geometries are compared, and defects (step edge orientations, point and line defects, impurities, surface manifestations of crystallographic shear planes—CSPs) are discussed, as well as the image contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) The controversy about the correct model for the (1×2) reconstruction appears to be settled Different surface preparation methods, such as reoxidation of reduced crystals, can cause a drastic effect on surface geometries and morphology, and recommendations for preparing different TiO 2 (1 1 0) surfaces are given The structure of the TiO 2 (1 0 0)-(1×1) surface is discussed and the proposed models for the (1×3) reconstruction are critically reviewed Very recent results on anatase (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) surfaces are included The electronic structure of stoichiometric TiO 2 surfaces is now well understood Surface defects can be detected with a variety of surface spectroscopies The vibrational structure is dominated by strong Fuchs–Kliewer phonons, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectra often need to be deconvoluted in order to render useful information about adsorbed molecules The growth of metals (Li, Na, K, Cs, Ca, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Cr, Mo, Mn, Fe, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au) as well as some metal oxides on TiO 2 is reviewed The tendency to ‘wet’ the overlayer, the growth morphology, the epitaxial relationship, and the strength of the interfacial oxidation/reduction reaction all follow clear trends across the periodic table, with the reactivity of the overlayer metal towards oxygen being the most decisive factor Alkali atoms form ordered superstructures at low coverages Recent progress in understanding the surface structure of metals in the ‘strong-metal support interaction’ (SMSI) state is summarized Literature is reviewed on the adsorption and reaction of a wide variety of inorganic molecules (H 2 , O 2 , H 2 O, CO, CO 2 , N 2 , NH 3 , NO x , sulfur- and halogen-containing molecules, rare gases) as well as organic molecules (carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, alkynes, pyridine and its derivates, silanes, methyl halides) The application of TiO 2 -based systems in photo-active devices is discussed, and the results on UHV-based photocatalytic studies are summarized The review ends with a brief conclusion and outlook of TiO 2 -based surface science for the future

6,656 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Tomoko Kasuga1, Masayoshi Hiramatsu1, Akihiko Hoson1, Toru Sekino1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
23 May 1998-Langmuir
Abstract: Nanotubes composed of various materials such as carbon, boron nitride, and oxides have been studied recently. In this report, the discovery of a new route for the synthesis of a nanotube made of titanium oxide is presented. Needle-shaped TiO2 crystals (anatase phase) with a diameter of ≈8 nm and a length of ≈100 nm were obtained when sol−gel-derived fine TiO2-based powders were treated chemically (e.g., for 20 h at 110 °C) with a 5−10 M NaOH aqueous solution. It was found by observation using a transmission electron microscope that the needle-shaped products have a tube structure. The TiO2 nanotubes have a large specific surface area of ≈400 m2·g-1. TiO2 nanotubes obtained in the present work are anticipated to have great potential for use in the preparation of catalysts, adsorbants, and deodorants with high activities, because their specific surface area is greatly increased. If metallic-, inorganic-, or organic-based materials can be inserted into the TiO2 nanotubes, novel characteristics such as electr...

2,247 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: EDS results confirmed a systematic increase of Eu content in the as-prepared samples with the increase of nominal europiumcontent in the reaction solution, and crystallinity and crystallite size of the titania particles decreased gradually.
Abstract: Uniform, spherical-shaped TiO2:Eu nanoparticles with different doping concentrations have been synthesized through controlled hydrolysis of titanium tetrabutoxide under appropriate pH and temperature in the presence of EuCl3·6H2O. Through air annealing at 500°C for 2 h, the amorphous, as-grown nanoparticles could be converted to a pure anatase phase. The morphology, structural, and optical properties of the annealed nanostructures were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy [EDS], and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. Optoelectronic behaviors of the nanostructures were studied using micro-Raman and photoluminescence [PL] spectroscopies at room temperature. EDS results confirmed a systematic increase of Eu content in the as-prepared samples with the increase of nominal europium content in the reaction solution. With the increasing dopant concentration, crystallinity and crystallite size of the titania particles decreased gradually. Incorporation of europium in the titania particles induced a structural deformation and a blueshift of their absorption edge. While the room-temperature PL emission of the as-grown samples is dominated by the 5D0 - 7Fj transition of Eu+3 ions, the emission intensity reduced drastically after thermal annealing due to outwards segregation of dopant ions.

2,213 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Titanium dioxide, TiO2, is an important photocatalytic material that exists as two main polymorphs, anatase and rutile. The presence of either or both of these phases impacts on the photocatalytic performance of the material. The present work reviews the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The synthesis and properties of anatase and rutile are examined, followed by a discussion of the thermodynamics of the phase transformation and the factors affecting its observation. A comprehensive analysis of the reported effects of dopants on the anatase to rutile phase transformation and the mechanisms by which these effects are brought about is presented in this review, yielding a plot of the cationic radius versus the valence characterised by a distinct boundary between inhibitors and promoters of the phase transformation. Further, the likely effects of dopant elements, including those for which experimental data are unavailable, on the phase transformation are deduced and presented on the basis of this analysis.

2,081 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jimmy C. Yu1, Jiaguo Yu1, Wingkei Ho2, and Zitao Jiang2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: A novel and simple method for preparing highly photoactive nanocrystalline F--doped TiO2 photocatalyst with anatase and brookite phase was developed by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide in a mixed NH4F−H2O solution. The prepared F--doped TiO2 powders were characterized by differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV−vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and BET surface areas. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation of acetone in air. The results showed that the crystallinity of anatase was improved upon F- doping. Moreover, fluoride ions not only suppressed the formation of brookite phase but also prevented phase transition of anatase to rutile. The F--doped TiO2 samples exhibited stronger absorption in the UV−visible range with a red shift in the band gap transition. The photocatalytic activity of F--doped TiO2 powders prep...

1,962 citations

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