About: Andrographolide is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1541 publications have been published within this topic receiving 29610 citations.
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TL;DR: The results indicate that the dichloromethane fraction of the methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata retains the active compounds contributing for both the anticancer and immunostimulatory activity.
Abstract: Andrographis paniculata extract is traditionally used as a medicine to treat different diseases in India, China and Southeast Asia. In the present study, we evaluated the anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in human cancer and immune cells. The methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata was fractionated into dichloromethane, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts and screened for bioactivity. Our results indicate that the dichloromethane fraction of the methanolic extract retains the active compounds contributing for both the anticancer and immunostimulatory activity. Dichloromethane fraction significantly inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 (colon cancer) cells and augments the proliferation human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) at low concentrations. On further fractionation of the dichloromethane extract we could isolate three diterpene compounds, i.e.  andrographolide,  14-deoxyandrographolide and  14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide. Andrographolide showed anticancer activity on diverse cancer cells representing different types of human cancers. Whereas all the three molecules showed enhanced proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) induction in HPBLs.
TL;DR: Andrographolide may inhibit HIV‐induced cell cycle dysregulation, leading to a rise in CD4+ lymphocyte levels in HIV‐1 infected individuals, according to this phase I dose‐escalating clinical trial.
Abstract: A phase I dose-escalating clinical trial of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata was conducted in 13 HIV positive patients and five HIV uninfected, healthy volunteers. The objectives were primarily to assess safety and tolerability and secondarily to assess effects on plasma virion HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4(+) lymphocyte levels. No subjects used antiretroviral medications during the trial. Those with liver or renal abnormalities were excluded. The planned regimen was 5 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks, escalating to 10 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks, and to 20 mg/kg bodyweight for a final 3 weeks. The trial was interrupted at 6 weeks due to adverse events including an anaphylactic reaction in one patient. All adverse events had resolved by the end of observation. A significant rise in the mean CD4(+) lymphocyte level of HIV subjects occurred after administration of 10 mg/kg andrographolide (from a baseline of 405 cells/mm(3) to 501 cells/mm(3); p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant changes in mean plasma HIV-1 RNA levels throughout the trial. Andrographolide may inhibit HIV-induced cell cycle dysregulation, leading to a rise in CD4(+) lymphocyte levels in HIV-1 infected individuals.
TL;DR: The stimulation of both antigen specific and nonspecific immune response was, however, of lower order with andrographolide than with the EtOH extract, suggesting thereby that substance(s) other than andrograpolide present in the extract may also be contributing towards immunostimulation.
Abstract: EtOH extract and purified diterpene andrographolides of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) induced significant stimulation of antibody and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in mice. The plant preparations also stimulated nonspecific immune response of the animals measured in terms of macrophage migration index (MMI) phagocytosis of 14C-leucine labelled Escherichia coli and proliferation of splenic lymphocytes. The stimulation of both antigen specific and nonspecific immune response was, however, of lower order with andrographolide than with the EtOH extract, suggesting thereby that substance(s) other than andrographolide present in the extract may also be contributing towards immunostimulation.
TL;DR: A unique pharmacological mechanism of Andro’s protective anti-inflammatory actions is revealed, which suppressed the activation of NF-κB in stimulated endothelial cells and abrogated the cytokine- and endotoxin-induced peritoneal deposition of neutrophils, attenuated septic shock, and prevented allergic lung inflammation in vivo.
Abstract: NF-kappaB is a central transcriptional factor and a pleiotropic regulator of many genes involved in immunological responses. During the screening of a plant extract library of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, we found that NF-kappaB activity was potently inhibited by andrographolide (Andro), an abundant component of the plant Andrographis that has been commonly used as a folk remedy for alleviation of inflammatory disorders in Asia for millennia. Mechanistically, it formed a covalent adduct with reduced cysteine (62) of p50, thus blocking the binding of NF-kappaB oligonucleotide to nuclear proteins. Andro suppressed the activation of NF-kappaB in stimulated endothelial cells, which reduced the expression of cell adhesion molecule E-selectin and prevented E-selectin-mediated leukocyte adhesion under flow. It also abrogated the cytokine- and endotoxin-induced peritoneal deposition of neutrophils, attenuated septic shock, and prevented allergic lung inflammation in vivo. Notably, it had no suppressive effect on IkappaBalpha degradation, p50 and p65 nuclear translocation, or cell growth rates. Our results thus reveal a unique pharmacological mechanism of Andro's protective anti-inflammatory actions.
TL;DR: The results suggest that andrographolide is an interesting pharmacophore with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and hence has the potential for being developed as a cancer therapeutic agent.
Abstract: Andrographis paniculata plant extract is known to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. Andrographolide, the major constituent of the extract is implicated towards its pharmacological activity. We studied the cellular processes and targets modulated by andrographolide treatment in human cancer and immune cells. Andrographolide treatment inhibited the in vitro proliferation of different tumor cell lines, representing various types of cancers. The compound exerts direct anticancer activity on cancer cells by cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through induction of cell-cycle inhibitory protein p27 and decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Immunostimulatory activity of andrographolide is evidenced by increased proliferation of lymphocytes and production of interleukin-2. Andrographolide also enhanced the tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and CD marker expression, resulting in increased cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes against cancer cells, which may contribute for its indirect anticancer activity. The in vivo anticancer activity of the compound is further substantiated against B16F0 melanoma syngenic and HT-29 xenograft models. These results suggest that andrographolide is an interesting pharmacophore with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and hence has the potential for being developed as a cancer therapeutic agent.
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