About: Annulation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10152 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 189701 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The breakthrough is presented using chiral phosphoramidite ligands for copper-catalyzed dialkylzinc additions for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation by 1,4-addition of organometallic reagents to enones.
Abstract: The development of an efficient catalytic system for enantioselective carbon−carbon bond formation by 1,4-addition of organometallic reagents (organolithium, Grignard, and organozinc reagents) to enones is a major challenge in organic synthesis. This Account presents the breakthrough realized in this field using chiral phosphoramidite ligands for copper-catalyzed dialkylzinc additions. Applications in catalytic routes to cycloalkanones as well as tandem and annulation procedures with excellent enantioselectivities are discussed.
22 May 2008-Chemical Society Reviews
TL;DR: This tutorial review summarizes the recent achievements in nucleophilic phosphine catalysis and describes how phosphines can be easily tailored to efficient annulation reactions with good control over reaction selectivity.
Abstract: Nucleophilic phosphine catalysis has proven to be a powerful tool in organic synthesis, which can provide easy access to cyclic, bicyclic or polycyclic carbocycles and heterocycles. Owing to their comparatively strong and readily tunable nucleophilicity, phosphines can be easily tailored to efficient annulation reactions with good control over reaction selectivity. This has resulted in a tremendous increase in their scope and in a concomitant number of reports where phosphine-triggered annulation reactions occur. This tutorial review summarizes the recent achievements in this area.
TL;DR: The use of complexes 1 and its dicationic analogue [Cp*Rh(MeCN)(3)][SbF(6)](2) 2 have been employed in the formation of indoles via the oxidative annulation of acetanilides with internal alkynes, extending the reaction class to include the synthesis of pyrroles.
Abstract: Recently, the rhodium(III)-complex [Cp*RhCl(2)](2) 1 has provided exciting opportunities for the efficient synthesis of aromatic heterocycles based on a rhodium-catalyzed C-H bond functionalization event. In the present report, the use of complexes 1 and its dicationic analogue [Cp*Rh(MeCN)(3)][SbF(6)](2) 2 have been employed in the formation of indoles via the oxidative annulation of acetanilides with internal alkynes. The optimized reaction conditions allow for molecular oxygen to be used as the terminal oxidant in this process, and the reaction may be carried out under mild temperatures (60 °C). These conditions have resulted in an expanded compatibility of the reaction to include a range of new internal alkynes bearing synthetically useful functional groups in moderate to excellent yields. The applicability of the method is exemplified in an efficient synthesis of paullone 3, a tetracyclic indole derivative with established biological activity. A mechanistic investigation of the reaction, employing deuterium labeling experiments and kinetic analysis, has provided insight into issues of reactivity for both coupling partners as well as aided in the development of conditions for improved regioselectivity with respect to meta-substituted acetanilides. This reaction class has also been extended to include the synthesis of pyrroles. Catalyst 2 efficiently couples substituted enamides with internal alkynes at room temperature to form trisubstituted pyrroles in good to excellent yields. The high functional group compatibility of this reaction enables the elaboration of the pyrrole products into a variety of differentially substituted pyrroles.
01 Dec 2008-Chemical Society Reviews
TL;DR: The versatility of NHC-bound homoenolate is illustrated by its annulation with various carbonyl compounds leading to gamma-butyrolactones, spiro-gamma- butyrolactsones, and delta-lactones.
Abstract: Homoenolate, a species containing anionic carbon β to a carbonyl group or a moiety that can be transformed into a carbonyl group, is a potential three carbon synthon. Recent introduction of a protocol for the generation of homoenolate directly from enals by NHC (nucleophilic heterocyclic carbene) catalysis has made it possible to explore the synthetic utility of this unique reactive intermediate. The versatility of NHC-bound homoenolate is illustrated by its annulation with various carbonyl compounds leading to γ-butyrolactones, spiro-γ-butyrolactones, and δ-lactones. Interception of homoenolate with imines afforded γ-lactams and bicyclic β-lactams. Formation of cyclopentenes and spirocyclopentanones respectively by reaction with enones and dienones is also noteworthy. This tutorial review focuses on these and other types of reactions which attest to the synthetic potential of NHC-bound homoenolates in organic synthesis.
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