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Anodic bonding

About: Anodic bonding is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5330 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 83785 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Several aspects of a new silicon‐on‐insulator technique utilizing bonding of oxidized silicon wafers were investigated. The bonding was achieved by heating in an inert atmosphere a pair of wafers with hydrophilic surfaces contacted face‐to‐face. A quantitative method for the evaluation of the surface energy of the bond based on crack propagation theory was developed. The bond strength was found to increase with the bonding temperature from about 60–85 erg/cm2 at room temperature to ≂2200 erg/cm2 at 1400 °C. The strength was essentially independent of the bond time. Bonds created during 10‐s annealing at 800 °C were mechanically strong enough to withstand the mechanical and/or chemical thinning of the top wafer to the desired thickness and subsequent device processing. A model was proposed to explain three distinct phases of bonding in the temperature domain. Electrical properties of the bond were tested using metal‐oxide‐semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. The results were consistent with a negative charge de...

789 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A new process is described which permits the sealing of metals to glass and other insulators at temperatures well below the softening point of the glass. Sealing is accomplished in about 1 min by applying a dc voltage in excess of a few hundred volts between the glass and the metal in such a way that the former is at a negative potential with respect to the latter. The process has been applied to a number of glass‐metal combinations. A discussion is presented of some of the mechanisms which are believed to play a role in the bonding process.

786 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: When mirror-polished, flat, and clean wafers of almost any material are brought into contact at room temperature, they are locally attracted to each other by van der Waals forces and adhere or bond. This phenomenon is referred to as wafer bonding. The most prominent applications of wafer bonding are silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices, silicon-based sensors and actuators, as well as optical devices. The basics of wafer-bonding technology are described, including microcleanroom approaches, prevention of interface bubbles, bonding of III-V compounds, low-temperature bonding, ultra-high vacuum bonding, thinning methods such as smart-cut procedures, and twist wafer bonding for compliant substrates. Wafer bonding allows a new degree of freedom in design and fabrication of material combinations that previously would have been excluded because these material combinations cannot be realized by the conventional approach of epitaxial growth.

658 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A silicon wafer bonding process is described in which only thermally grown oxide is present between wafer pairs. Bonding occurs after insertion into an oxidizing ambient. It is proposed the wafers are drawn into intimate contact as a result of the gaseous oxygen between them being consumed by oxidation, thus producing a partial vacuum. The proposed bonding mechanism is polymerization of silanol bonds between wafer pairs. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is produced by etching away all but a few microns of one of the bonded pair. Capacitor measurements show a 27 μs minority‐carrier lifetime and no degradation of the SOI‐insulator interface. In addition, there is negligible charge at the bonding interface making the technique attractive for three‐dimensional as well as planar SOI applications.

603 citations

23 Nov 1998-
Abstract: Basics of Interactions Between Flat Surfaces. Influence of Particles, Surface Steps, and Cavities. Surface Preparation and Room-Temperature Wafer Bonding. Thermal Treatment of Bonded Wafer Pairs. Thinning Procedures. Electrical Properties of Bonding Interfaces. Stresses in Bonded Wafers. Bonding of Dissimilar Materials. Bonding of Structured Wafers. Mainstream Applications. Emerging and Future Applications. Index.

600 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Tadatomo Suga

150 papers, 3K citations

Ulrich Gösele

38 papers, 2.1K citations

Masayoshi Esashi

34 papers, 986 citations

Hideki Takagi

29 papers, 1K citations

Chuan Seng Tan

25 papers, 471 citations