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Antenna array

About: Antenna array is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 26971 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 356254 citation(s).


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper surveys recent advances in the area of very large MIMO systems. With very large MIMO, we think of systems that use antenna arrays with an order of magnitude more elements than in systems being built today, say a hundred antennas or more. Very large MIMO entails an unprecedented number of antennas simultaneously serving a much smaller number of terminals. The disparity in number emerges as a desirable operating condition and a practical one as well. The number of terminals that can be simultaneously served is limited, not by the number of antennas, but rather by our inability to acquire channel-state information for an unlimited number of terminals. Larger numbers of terminals can always be accommodated by combining very large MIMO technology with conventional time- and frequency-division multiplexing via OFDM. Very large MIMO arrays is a new research field both in communication theory, propagation, and electronics and represents a paradigm shift in the way of thinking both with regards to theory, systems and implementation. The ultimate vision of very large MIMO systems is that the antenna array would consist of small active antenna units, plugged into an (optical) fieldbus.

2,389 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the extensive results on the Shannon capacity of single-user and multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels is provided and it is shown that the capacity region of the MIMO multiple access and the largest known achievable rate region (called the dirty-paper region) for the M IMO broadcast channel are intimately related via a duality transformation.
Abstract: We provide an overview of the extensive results on the Shannon capacity of single-user and multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. Although enormous capacity gains have been predicted for such channels, these predictions are based on somewhat unrealistic assumptions about the underlying time-varying channel model and how well it can be tracked at the receiver, as well as at the transmitter. More realistic assumptions can dramatically impact the potential capacity gains of MIMO techniques. For time-varying MIMO channels there are multiple Shannon theoretic capacity definitions and, for each definition, different correlation models and channel information assumptions that we consider. We first provide a comprehensive summary of ergodic and capacity versus outage results for single-user MIMO channels. These results indicate that the capacity gain obtained from multiple antennas heavily depends on the available channel information at either the receiver or transmitter, the channel signal-to-noise ratio, and the correlation between the channel gains on each antenna element. We then focus attention on the capacity region of the multiple-access channels (MACs) and the largest known achievable rate region for the broadcast channel. In contrast to single-user MIMO channels, capacity results for these multiuser MIMO channels are quite difficult to obtain, even for constant channels. We summarize results for the MIMO broadcast and MAC for channels that are either constant or fading with perfect instantaneous knowledge of the antenna gains at both transmitter(s) and receiver(s). We show that the capacity region of the MIMO multiple access and the largest known achievable rate region (called the dirty-paper region) for the MIMO broadcast channel are intimately related via a duality transformation. This transformation facilitates finding the transmission strategies that achieve a point on the boundary of the MIMO MAC capacity region in terms of the transmission strategies of the MIMO broadcast dirty-paper region and vice-versa. Finally, we discuss capacity results for multicell MIMO channels with base station cooperation. The base stations then act as a spatially diverse antenna array and transmission strategies that exploit this structure exhibit significant capacity gains. This section also provides a brief discussion of system level issues associated with MIMO cellular. Open problems in this field abound and are discussed throughout the paper.

2,360 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1997
TL;DR: This paper provides a comprehensive and detailed treatment of different beam-forming schemes, adaptive algorithms to adjust the required weighting on antennas, direction-of-arrival estimation methods-including their performance comparison-and effects of errors on the performance of an array system, as well as schemes to alleviate them.
Abstract: Array processing involves manipulation of signals induced on various antenna elements. Its capabilities of steering nulls to reduce cochannel interferences and pointing independent beams toward various mobiles, as well as its ability to provide estimates of directions of radiating sources, make it attractive to a mobile communications system designer. Array processing is expected to play an important role in fulfilling the increased demands of various mobile communications services. Part I of this paper showed how an array could be utilized in different configurations to improve the performance of mobile communications systems, with references to various studies where feasibility of apt array system for mobile communications is considered. This paper provides a comprehensive and detailed treatment of different beam-forming schemes, adaptive algorithms to adjust the required weighting on antennas, direction-of-arrival estimation methods-including their performance comparison-and effects of errors on the performance of an array system, as well as schemes to alleviate them. This paper brings together almost all aspects of array signal processing.

2,062 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mutual resistance condition offers a powerful design tool, and examples of new mobile diversity antennas are discussed along with some existing designs.
Abstract: The conditions for antenna diversity action are investigated. In terms of the fields, a condition is shown to be that the incident field and the far field of the diversity antenna should obey (or nearly obey) an orthogonality relationship. The role of mutual coupling is central, and it is different from that in a conventional array antenna. In terms of antenna parameters, a sufficient condition for diversity action for a certain class of high gain antennas at the mobile, which approximates most practical mobile antennas, is shown to be zero (or low) mutual resistance between elements. This is not the case at the base station, where the condition is necessary only. The mutual resistance condition offers a powerful design tool, and examples of new mobile diversity antennas are discussed along with some existing designs.

1,319 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
26 Apr 2004
TL;DR: It is shown that MIMO radar leads to significant performance improvement in DF accuracy, and is carried out in terms of the Cramer-Rao bound of the mean-square error in estimating the target direction.
Abstract: It has recently been shown that multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems have the potential to improve dramatically the performance of communication systems over single antenna systems. Unlike beamforming, which presumes a high correlation between signals either transmitted or received by an array, the MIMO concept exploits the independence between signals at the array elements. In conventional radar, target scintillations are regarded as a nuisance parameter that degrades radar performance. The novelty of MIMO radar is that it takes the opposite view; namely, it capitalizes on target scintillations to improve the radar's performance. We introduce the MIMO concept for radar. The MIMO radar system under consideration consists of a transmit array with widely-spaced elements such that each views a different aspect of the target. The array at the receiver is a conventional array used for direction finding (DF). The system performance analysis is carried out in terms of the Cramer-Rao bound of the mean-square error in estimating the target direction. It is shown that MIMO radar leads to significant performance improvement in DF accuracy.

1,318 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20229
20211,115
20201,907
20192,245
20181,969
20171,764