Topic

# Antenna measurement

About: Antenna measurement is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 39647 publications have been published within this topic receiving 494474 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the physical limitations of omni-directional antennas are considered and the potentiality of a broad band width of an antenna with the maximum dimension of 2a has been shown.

Abstract: The physical limitations of omni‐directional antennas are considered. With the use of the spherical wave functions to describe the field, the directivity gain G and the Q of an unspecified antenna are calculated under idealized conditions. To obtain the optimum performance, three criteria are used, (1) maximum gain for a given complexity of the antenna structure, (2) minimum Q, (3) maximum ratio of G/Q. It is found that an antenna of which the maximum dimension is 2a has the potentiality of a broad band width provided that the gain is equal to or less than 4a/λ. To obtain a gain higher than this value, the Q of the antenna increases at an astronomical rate. The antenna which has potentially the broadest band width of all omni‐directional antennas is one which has a radiation pattern corresponding to that of an infinitesimally small dipole.

1,844 citations

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TL;DR: The mutual resistance condition offers a powerful design tool, and examples of new mobile diversity antennas are discussed along with some existing designs.

Abstract: The conditions for antenna diversity action are investigated. In terms of the fields, a condition is shown to be that the incident field and the far field of the diversity antenna should obey (or nearly obey) an orthogonality relationship. The role of mutual coupling is central, and it is different from that in a conventional array antenna. In terms of antenna parameters, a sufficient condition for diversity action for a certain class of high gain antennas at the mobile, which approximates most practical mobile antennas, is shown to be zero (or low) mutual resistance between elements. This is not the case at the base station, where the condition is necessary only. The mutual resistance condition offers a powerful design tool, and examples of new mobile diversity antennas are discussed along with some existing designs.

1,319 citations

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01 Dec 1947

TL;DR: In this paper, a simple formula for the more fundamental properties of small antennas and their behavior in a simple circuit is given for 1-Mc operation in typical circuits, which indicates a loss of about 35 db for the I.R.E. standard capacitive antenna, 43 db for a large loop occupying a volume of 1 meter square by 0.5 meter axial length, and 64 db for an antenna loop of 1/5 these dimensions.

Abstract: A capacitor or inductor operating as a small antenna is theoretically capable of intercepting a certain amount of power, independent of its size, on the assumption of tuning without circuit loss. The practical efficiency relative to this ideal is limited by the "radiation power factor" of the antenna as compared with the power factor and bandwidth of the antenna tuning. The radiation power factor of either kind of antenna is somewhat greater than (1/6π) (Ab/l2) in which Ab is the cylindrical volume occupied by the antenna, and l is the radianlength (defined as 1/2π wavelength) at the operating frequency. The efficiency is further limited by the closeness of coupling of the antenna with its tuner. Other simple formulas are given for the more fundamental properties of small antennas and their behavior in a simple circuit. Examples for 1-Mc. operation in typical circuits indicate a loss of about 35 db for the I.R.E. standard capacitive antenna, 43 db for a large loop occupying a volume of 1 meter square by 0.5 meter axial length, and 64 db for a loop of 1/5 these dimensions.

1,151 citations

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01 Dec 1950

TL;DR: In this article, Lehto and Vainikainen discuss the relationship between aperture distribution and far-field pattern and the Fourier Transform Relation between Aperture Distribution and Far-Field Pattern.

Abstract: 1 Introduction 2 Antenna Basics 3 The Antenna Family 4 Point Sources 5 Arrays of Point Sources 6 The Electric Dipole and Thin Linear Antennas 7 The Loop Antenna 8 End Fire Antennas: The Helical Beam Antenna and the Yagi-Uda Array 9 Slot, Patch and Horn Antennas 9II Slot and Horn Antennas II 10 Flat Sheet, Corner and Parabolic Reflector Antennas 11 Broadband and Frequency-Independent Antennas 12 Antenna Temperature, Remote Sensing and Radar Cross-Section 13 Self and Mutual Impedances 14 The Cylindrical Antenna and the Moment Method (MM) 15 The Fourier Transform Relation Between Aperture Distribution and Far-Field Pattern 16 Arrays of Dipoles and of Apertures 17 Lens Antennas 18 Frequency-Selective Surfaces and Periodic Structures by Ben A. Munk 19 Practical Design Considerations of Large Aperture Antennas 20 Some Examples of Large or Unique Antennas 21 Antennas for Special Applications 22 Terahertz Antennas 23 Baluns, etc. By Ben A. Munk 24 Antenna Measurements. By Arto Lehto and Pertti Vainikainen Appendix A Tables for Reference Appendix B Books and Video Tapes Appendix C Computer Programs (Codes) Appendix D Absorbing Materials Appendix E Measurement Error

1,072 citations