scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question


About: Anthocyanin is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6338 publications have been published within this topic receiving 286354 citations. The topic is also known as: anthocyanin.

More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Three classes of pigments act as visible signals to attract insects, birds and animals for pollination and seed dispersal, and protect plants from damage caused by UV and visible light.
Abstract: Plant compounds that are perceived by humans to have color are generally referred to as 'pigments'. Their varied structures and colors have long fascinated chemists and biologists, who have examined their chemical and physical properties, their mode of synthesis, and their physiological and ecological roles. Plant pigments also have a long history of use by humans. The major classes of plant pigments, with the exception of the chlorophylls, are reviewed here. Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids derived ultimately from phenylalanine, are water-soluble, synthesized in the cytosol, and localized in vacuoles. They provide a wide range of colors ranging from orange/red to violet/blue. In addition to various modifications to their structures, their specific color also depends on co-pigments, metal ions and pH. They are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. The lipid-soluble, yellow-to-red carotenoids, a subclass of terpenoids, are also distributed ubiquitously in plants. They are synthesized in chloroplasts and are essential to the integrity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Betalains, also conferring yellow-to-red colors, are nitrogen-containing water-soluble compounds derived from tyrosine that are found only in a limited number of plant lineages. In contrast to anthocyanins and carotenoids, the biosynthetic pathway of betalains is only partially understood. All three classes of pigments act as visible signals to attract insects, birds and animals for pollination and seed dispersal. They also protect plants from damage caused by UV and visible light.

1,615 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviews their biological functions and pre-clinical studies, as well as the most recent analytical techniques concerning anthocyanin isolation and identification.

1,481 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Scientific studies show that anthocyanidins and Anthocyanins possess antioxidative and antimicrobial activities, improve visual and neurological health, and protect against various non-communicable diseases.
Abstract: Anthocyanins are colored water-soluble pigments belonging to the phenolic group. The pigments are in glycosylated forms. Anthocyanins responsible for the colors, red, purple, and blue, are in fruits and vegetables. Berries, currants, grapes, and some tropical fruits have high anthocyanins content. Red to purplish blue-colored leafy vegetables, grains, roots, and tubers are the edible vegetables that contain a high level of anthocyanins. Among the anthocyanin pigments, cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in most of the plants. The colored anthocyanin pigments have been traditionally used as a natural food colorant. The color and stability of these pigments are influenced by pH, light, temperature, and structure. In acidic condition, anthocyanins appear as red but turn blue when the pH increases. Chromatography has been largely applied in extraction, separation, and quantification of anthocyanins. Besides the use of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural dyes, these colored pigments are potential pharmaceutical ingredients that give various beneficial health effects. Scientific studies, such as cell culture studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, show that anthocyanidins and anthocyanins possess antioxidative and antimicrobial activities, improve visual and neurological health, and protect against various non-communicable diseases. These studies confer the health effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins, which are due to their potent antioxidant properties. Different mechanisms and pathways are involved in the protective effects, including free-radical scavenging pathway, cyclooxygenase pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and inflammatory cytokines signaling. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural food colorants and their nutraceutical properties for health. Abbreviations: CVD: Cardiovascular disease VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.

1,411 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay developed in this paper, the authors determined the antioxidant capacity of 14 anthocyanins including the aglycons delphinidin, cyanindin, pelargonin, malvidin, peonidin and their derivatives with different sugar linkages.
Abstract: Anthocyanins are natural colorants belonging to the flavonoid family. They are widely distributed among flowers, fruits, and vegetables. Using the automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay developed in our laboratory, we determined the antioxidant capacity of 14 anthocyanins including the aglycons delphinidin, cyanindin, pelargonidin, malvidin, peonidin, and their derivatives with different sugar linkages. Among these anthocyanins, kuromanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) had the highest ORAC activity, which was 3.5 times stronger than Trolox (vitamin E analogue), while pelargonin had the lowest antioxidant activity but was still as potent as Trolox. Different patterns of hydroxylation and glycosylation in anthocyanins appear to modulate their antioxidant properties. Therefore, in addition to their colorful characteristics, anthocyanins possess potent antioxidant properties.

1,367 citations

01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on the more recent developments in gene isolation and characterization of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and study their interactions and regulation in different species of maize, snapdragon, and petunia.
Abstract: Flavonoids represent a large class of secondary plant metabolites, of which anthocyanins are the most conspicuous class, dueto the wide range of colors resulting from their synthesis. Anthocyanins are important to many diverse functions within plants. Synthesis of anthocyanins in petals is undoubtedly intended to attract pollinators, whereas anthocyanin synthesis in seeds and fruits may aid in seed dispersal. Anthocyanins and other flavonoids can also be important as feeding deterrents and as protection against damage from UV irradiation. The existence of such a diverse range of functions and types of anthocyanins raises questions about how these compounds are synthesized and how their synthesis is regulated. The study of the genetics of anthocyanin synthesis began last century with Mendel’s work on flower color in peas. Since that time, there have been periods of intensive study into the genetics and biochemistry of pigment production in a number of different species. In the early studies, genetic loci were correlated with easily observable color changes. After the structures of anthocyanins and other flavonoids were determined, it was possible to correlate single genes with particular structural alterations of anthocyanins or with the presence or absence of particular flavonoids. Mutations in anthocyanin genes have been studied for many years because they are easily identified and because they generally have no deleterious effect on plant growth and development. In most cases, mutations affecting different steps of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were isolated and characterized well before their function was identified or the corresponding gene was isolated. More recently, many genes involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments have been isolated and characterized using recombinant DNA technologies. Three species have been particularly important for elucidating the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and for isolating genes controlling the biosynthesis of flavonoids: maize (Zea mays), snapdragon (Anfirrhinum majus), and petunia (Wtunia hybrida). Petunia has more recently become the organism of choice for isolating flavonoid biosynthetic genes and studying their interactions and regulation. At least 35 genes are known to affect flower color in petuniawiering and de Vlaming, 1984). Because this field of research has been reviewed fairly extensively in the past (Dooner et al., 1991; van Tunen and MOI, 1991; Gerats and Martin, 1992), in this review we concentrate on the more recent developments in gene isolation and characterization. A review of the genetics of flavonoid biosynthesis in other species was recently covered by Forkmann (1993). The characterization of genetically defined mutations has enabled the order of many reactions in anthocyanin synthesis and their modification to be elucidated. Some reactions have been postulated only on the basis of genetic studies and have not yet been demonstrated in vitro. Chemico-genetic studies have been very important in determining the enzymatic steps involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and modification. The generation of transposon-tagged mutations and the subsequent cloning of the transposons provided a relatively straightforward means of isolating many genes from maize (Wienand et al., 1990) and snapdragon (Martin et al., 1991). However, a number of genes in the pathway have not been amenable to transposon tagging. Anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated using a range of methodologies, including protein purification, transposon tagging, differential screening, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Functions of isolated anthocyanin genes can be confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) mapping, complementation, or expression in heterologous systems. Reverse genetics has also been used recently to identify gene function; this requires a welldefined pathway to correlate phenotype with gene function. Once a gene has been isolated from one species, it is usually a straightforward task to isolate the homologous gene from other species by using the original clone as a molecular probe.

1,345 citations

Network Information
Related Topics (5)
30.1K papers, 759.9K citations
85% related
50.2K papers, 1M citations
85% related
32.1K papers, 693.3K citations
84% related
37.9K papers, 1.7M citations
84% related
13.9K papers, 603.6K citations
83% related
No. of papers in the topic in previous years