About: Anticipation (genetics) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 669 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 21784 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Genetic Anticipation & Anticipation, Genetic.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 May 2004-Lancet Neurology
TL;DR: The identification of ataxia genes raises hope that essential pathogenetic mechanisms causing SCA will become more and more apparent, and will enable the development of rational therapies for this group of disorders, which currently can only be treated symptomatically.
Abstract: Summary Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias are hereditary neurodegenerative disorders that are known as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) in genetic nomenclature. In the pregenomic era, ataxias were some of the most poorly understood neurological disorders; the unravelling of their molecular basis enabled precise diagnosis in vivo and explained many clinical phenomena such as anticipation and variable phenotypes even within one family. However, the discovery of many ataxia genes and loci in the past decade threatens to cause more confusion than optimism among clinicians. Therefore, the provision of guidance for genetic testing according to clinical findings and frequencies of SCA subtypes in different ethnic groups is a major challenge. The identification of ataxia genes raises hope that essential pathogenetic mechanisms causing SCA will become more and more apparent. Elucidation of the pathogenesis of SCA hopefully will enable the development of rational therapies for this group of disorders, which currently can only be treated symptomatically.
18 Apr 2004-Nature Genetics
TL;DR: Disease anticipation is observed in families with the bone marrow failure syndrome autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita and this is associated with progressive telomere shortening.
Abstract: Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that is required to synthesize DNA repeats at the ends of each chromosome. The RNA component of this reverse transcriptase is mutated in the bone marrow failure syndrome autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita. Here we show that disease anticipation is observed in families with this disease and that this is associated with progressive telomere shortening.
01 Dec 1992-Journal of Medical Genetics
TL;DR: In this article, a clinical and genetic study of type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) has been carried out in the United Kingdom and the results show that there are two types of NF2, one with later onset and bilateral vestibular schwannomas as the only usual feature and the other with earlier onset and multiple other tumours.
Abstract: A clinical and genetic study of type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) has been carried out in the United Kingdom. Virtually complete ascertainment of cases in the north-west of England was achieved and suggests a population incidence of 1 in 33,000 to 40,000. In the UK as a whole, 150 cases have been identified and been used to study the clinical and genetic features of NF2. The autosomal dominant inheritance of NF2 was confirmed, 49% of cases were assessed as representing new mutations, and the mutation rate was estimated to be 6.5 x 10(-6). Evidence to support a maternal gene effect was found in that age at onset was 18.17 years in 36 maternally inherited cases and 24.5 in 20 paternally inherited cases (p = 0.027). The preponderance of maternally inherited cases was also significant (p = 0.03). Data are presented which suggest that there are two types of NF2, one with later onset and bilateral vestibular schwannomas as the only usual feature, and the other with earlier onset and multiple other tumours. A considerable number of cases did not fall easily into one or other group and other factors such as maternal effect on severity and anticipation need to be considered.
01 Dec 1999-Nature Genetics
TL;DR: The results show that Msh2 is required for somatic instability of the HD CAG repeat, suggesting important functional correlations between repeat length and pathology.
Abstract: Huntington disease (HD), an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is caused by an expanded CAG repeat sequence leading to an increase in the number of glutamine residues in the encoded protein. The normal CAG repeat range is 5-36, whereas 38 or more repeats are found in the diseased state; the severity of disease is roughly proportional to the number of CAG repeats. HD shows anticipation, in which subsequent generations display earlier disease onsets due to intergenerational repeat expansion. For longer repeat lengths, somatic instability of the repeat size has been observed both in human cases at autopsy and in transgenic mouse models containing either a genomic fragment of human HD exon 1 (ref. 9) or an expanded repeat inserted into the endogenous mouse gene Hdh (ref. 10). With increasing repeat number, the protein changes conformation and becomes increasingly prone to aggregation, suggesting important functional correlations between repeat length and pathology. Because dinucleotide repeat instability is known to increase when the mismatch repair enzyme MSH2 is missing, we examined instability of the HD CAG repeat by crossing transgenic mice carrying exon 1 of human HD (ref. 16) with Msh2-/- mice. Our results show that Msh2 is required for somatic instability of the CAG repeat.
TL;DR: The mechanism of dynamic mutation is discussed, and a number of observations of simple tandem repeat mutation that could assist in understanding this phenomenon are commented on.
Abstract: The human genome contains many repeated DNA sequences that vary in complexity of repeating unit from a single nucleotide to a whole gene. The repeat sequences can be widely dispersed or in simple tandem arrays. Arrays of up to 5 or 6 nt are known as simple tandem repeats, and these are widely dispersed and highly polymorphic. Members of one group of the simple tandem repeats, the trinucleotide repeats, can undergo an increase in copy number by a process of dynamic mutation. Dynamic mutations of the CCG trinucleotide give rise to one group of fragile sites on human chromosomes, the rare folate-sensitive group. One member of this group, the fragile X (FRAXA) is responsible for the most common familial form of mental retardation. Another member of the group FRAXE is responsible for a rarer mild form of mental retardation. Similar mutations of AGC repeats give rise to a number of neurological disorders. The expanded repeats are unstable between generations and somatically. The intergenerational instability gives rise to unusual patterns of inheritance--particularly anticipation, the increasing severity and/or earlier age of onset of the disorder in successive generations. Dynamic mutations have been found only in the human species, and possible reasons for this are considered. The mechanism of dynamic mutation is discussed, and a number of observations of simple tandem repeat mutation that could assist in understanding this phenomenon are commented on.