scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Topic

Antigen

About: Antigen is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 170233 publications have been published within this topic receiving 6982342 citations. The topic is also known as: antibody generator & Antigen.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By standardizing the technical conditions of the experiment it is possible to use this principle for the immunochemical determination of antigens, and the lower limit of the method was found to correspond to 0·0025 μg of antigen, and to an antigen concentrations of 1·25 μg per ml.

8,937 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two types of cloned helper T cells are described, defined primarily by differences in the pattern of lymphokines ynthesized, and the different functions of the two types of cells and their lymphokine synthesis are discussed.
Abstract: Effector functions in the immune system are carried out by a variety of cell types, and as our understanding of the complexity of the system expands, the number of recognized subdivisions of cell types also continues to increase. B lymphocytes, producing antibody, were initially distinguished from T lymphocytes, which provide help for B cells (1, 2). The T-cell population was further divided when surface markers allowed separation of helper cells from cytotoxic cells (3). Although there were persistent reports of heterogeneity in the helper T-cell compartment (reviewed below), only relatively recently were distinct types of helper cells resolved. In this review we describe the differences between two types of cloned helper T cells, defined primarily by differences in the pattern of lymphokines ynthesized, and we also discuss the different functions of the two types of cells and their lymphokines. Patterns of lymphokine synthesis are convenient and explicit markers to describe T-cell subclass differences, and evidence increases that many of the functions of helper T cells are predicted by the functions of the lymphokines that they synthesize after activation by antigen and presenting cells. The separation of many mouse helper T-cell clones into these two distinct types is now well established, but their origin in normal T-cell populations is still not clear. Further divisions of helper T cells may have to be recognized before a complete picture of helper T-cell function can be obtained.

7,814 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 May 1983-Science
TL;DR: From these studies it is concluded that this virus as well as the previous HTLV isolates belong to a general family of T-lymphotropic retroviruses that are horizontally transmitted in humans and may be involved in several pathological syndromes, including AIDS.
Abstract: A retrovirus belonging to the family of recently discovered human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLV), but clearly distinct from each previous isolate, has been isolated from a Caucasian patient with signs and symptoms that often precede the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This virus is a typical type-C RNA tumor virus, buds from the cell membrane, prefers magnesium for reverse transcriptase activity, and has an internal antigen (p25) similar to HTLV p24. Antibodies from serum of this patient react with proteins from viruses of the HTLV-I subgroup, but type-specific antisera to HTLV-I do not precipitate proteins of the new isolate. The virus from this patient has been transmitted into cord blood lymphocytes, and the virus produced by these cells is similar to the original isolate. From these studies it is concluded that this virus as well as the previous HTLV isolates belong to a general family of T-lymphotropic retroviruses that are horizontally transmitted in humans and may be involved in several pathological syndromes, including AIDS.

6,658 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Dendritic cells are specialized to mediate several physiologic components of immunogenicity such as the acquisition of antigens in tissues, the migration to lymphoid organs, and the identification and activation of antigen-specific T cells.
Abstract: Dendritic cells are a system of antigen presenting cells that function to initiate several immune responses such as the sensitization of MHC-restricted T cells, the rejection of organ transplants, and the formation of T-dependent antibodies. Dendritic cells are found in many nonlymphoid tissues but can migrate via the afferent lymph or the blood stream to the T-dependent areas of lymphoid organs. In skin, the immunostimulatory function of dendritic cells is enhanced by cytokines, especially GM-CSF. After foreign proteins are administered in situ, dendritic cells are a principal reservoir of immunogen. In vitro studies indicate that dendritic cells only process proteins for a short period of time, when the rate of synthesis of MHC products and content of acidic endocytic vesicles are high. Antigen processing is selectively dampened after a day in culture, but the capacity to stimulate responses to surface bound peptides and mitogens remains strong. Dendritic cells are motile, and efficiently cluster and activate T cells that are specific for stimuli on the cell surface. High levels of MHC class-I and -II products and several adhesins, such as ICAM-1 and LFA-3, likely contribute to these functions. Therefore dendritic cells are specialized to mediate several physiologic components of immunogenicity such as the acquisition of antigens in tissues, the migration to lymphoid organs, and the identification and activation of antigen-specific T cells. The function of these presenting cells in immunologic tolerance is just beginning to be studied.

4,872 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is reported here that, except for cells of the macrophage lineage, normal human tissues do not express B7-H1 and the findings have implications for the design of T cell–based cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract: B7-H1, a recently described member of the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is thought to be involved in the regulation of cellular and humoral immune responses through the PD-1 receptor on activated T and B cells. We report here that, except for cells of the macrophage lineage, normal human tissues do not express B7-H1. In contrast, B7-H1 is abundant in human carcinomas of lung, ovary and colon and in melanomas. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma upregulates B7-H1 on the surface of tumor cell lines. Cancer cell-associated B7-H1 increases apoptosis of antigen-specific human T-cell clones in vitro, and the apoptotic effect of B7-H1 is mediated largely by one or more receptors other than PD-1. In addition, expression of B7-H1 on mouse P815 tumor increases apoptosis of activated tumor-reactive T cells and promotes the growth of highly immunogenic B7-1(+) tumors in vivo. These findings have implications for the design of T cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

4,290 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Antibody
113.9K papers, 4.1M citations
98% related
Immune system
182.8K papers, 7.9M citations
95% related
T cell
109.5K papers, 5.5M citations
94% related
Cytokine
79.2K papers, 4.4M citations
92% related
Cytotoxic T cell
92.4K papers, 4.7M citations
91% related
Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20244
20233,983
20225,279
20213,228
20203,444
20193,267